HE 312 Chapters 1 -6

  1. What are the 5 basic “determinants of health”
    • 1. Biology/Genetics
    • 2. Access
    • 3. Social circumstances
    • 4. Environment
    • 5. Behavior
  2. Describe different ways that we can define “health”
    (WHO vs authors in textbook)
    WHO - a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

    Authors - A dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is  multidimensional and exist in varying degrees depending on the individual
  3. Identify ways that the definition of health “matters”(e.g. leads to planning) 
    • 1. Measures progress
    • 2. Identify contributing factor
    • 3. Assess outcomes
    • 4. Monitor changes
    • 5. Influence Behavior and Actions
    • 6. Sets goals and standards
  4. What are important differences between personal and community health activities?
    Personal  Health - Actions or decisions affect individual and may be preventative or curable but seldomly affect the behavior of others

    Community Health - Aimed at protection or improving health of a population or a communtiy
  5. What are some social factors that can influence patterns of health and disease?
    • 1. Geography
    • 2. Individual Behavior
    • 3. Age
    • 4. Gender
    • 5. Ethnicity
    • 6. SES
  6. How much life expectancy has changed since 1900?
    • 1. Public Health Knowledge
    • 2. Public Health Resources
    • 3. Life expectancy rose
    • 4. Overall death rate declined
    • 5. Leading cause of death changed
  7. What was the leading causes of death in 1900?
    Pnumonia or Influenza
  8. What is the major differences in leading causes of death (1900 vs. 2000).
    1900 - Pneumonia or Influenza

    2010 - Heart disease or Cancer
  9. Name 3 major achievements for public health in the U.S. past (100 years)
    • 1. Flu vaccine  1942-1945
    • 2. Antibiotic for Penicllin 1928-1940
    • 2. Medicare/Medicaid established 1965
  10. What are the key differences (for funding, leadership, and setting priorities) between 3 types of organizations (governmental, quasi-governmental, and non-governmental).
    • Non-Government - Funding by Private
    • Government - Funding by Public
    • Quasi-government - Funding by both public and private
  11. What is the hierarchy of organizations for tracking diseases and infections 
    • 1. WHO (World Health Organization)
    • 2. DHHS (Department of Health & Human Services)
    • 3. NYSDOH (NYS Department of Health)
    • 4. NYCDHMH(NYC Department of Health & Mental Hygiene) 
  12. Who is in charge or the Government sector of Health organizations?
    Elected Officials
  13. Name the 11 departments within DHHS (Dept of Health and Human Services) with examples of their roles and
    • 1. AOA (Administration on Aging) - service adults +65 
    • 2. ACF (Admin for Children & Families - Family assistance;child support
    • 3. AHQR (Agency Health Research & Quality)- Monitor helath care cost; enforce patient safety guidelines
    • 4. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances) - focus on Harzadous Waste
    • 5. CDC (Center for Disease Control/Prevention) - Research epidemics and disease prevention
    • 6. CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid)
    • 7. FDA Food & Drug Administration - Monitors & approves food safety, medical devices and drugs
    • 8. HRSA - (Health Resources & Service Admin)
    • Essential health care services of the low income uninsured population
    • 9. IHS (Indian Health Services) Health services for "tribal lands"
    • 10. NIH (National Institues of Health) - Focus on research and treatment outcomes
    • 11. SAMHSA - Substance Abuse & Mental Health - Prevention and treatment of addiction and disorders
  14. What are the key functions of epidemiology?
    • 1. Study populations not just individuals
    • 2. Investigate outbreaks (epidemics)
    • 3. Cause and factors 
    • 4. Keep illness and disease at a minimum
  15. Describe the importance of “rates” compared to just the number of cases
    The number of people that are affected in a given population within a period of time divided by the entire population
  16. What is prevalence?
    Old and New cases
  17. What is incidence
    Only new cases
  18. What is "attack"?
    The percentage of sick among those exposed
  19. Epidemic
    Diseases that do not occur regularly
  20. Endemics
    Disease the DO occur regularly especially in a given population. ex.- Malaria in Africa & Norway
  21. Mortality
    Death rate
  22. Morbidity
    Illness rate
  23. What is Analytical Studies?
    Test the relationship between health problem and risk factor
  24. What is Descriptive studies?
    Examines the data, demographic, SES of a population
  25. Communicable
    Can be transferred from one individual to another. A Chain of infection
  26. Multi-communicable
  27. What are some ways in which diseases can be classified and categorized 
    • Mode of Transport - airborne, waterborne, STD
    • Organ system affected - Heart or Lung
    • Duration of illness - accute vs. chronic
    • Causative agent - viral, bacterial, chemical, injury
  28. What is an accute illness and an example of some?
    An illness that last less than 3 months...Flu, common cold. Chickenpox, measles mumps, broken foot
  29. What is a chronic illness and an example of some?
    An illness that last more than 3 months...Cancer, Heart disease, hypertension, diabetes
  30. Non-communicable disease
    Cannot be transferred from one individual to another. ex- Cancer, diabetes, hypertension
  31. What is the order for "chain of infection"
    • Portal Entry
    • Pathogen
    • Infection in Host
    • Reservoir
    • Portal Exit
    • Transmission
  32. Describe ways that chain of infection can be “broken”
    at different steps in the cycle
    Pathogen>VACCINE>Non-Infection of Host

    Exit Portal>Barrier(Condom)>Non-Entry Portal
  33. Match types of transmission (airborne, waterborne, direct, indirect) with definitions and examples. 
    • Waterborne - bacteria on contaminated material
    • Airborne  - Respiratory tract illness (bronchitus) (COPD)
    • Vector-borne - Malaria, Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus
    • Direct - Touching, sneezing, sexual contact
    • Indirect - Wet surface or standing water
  34. Primary Prevention
    Preventing the onset of illness or injury before the disease process begins
  35. Secondary Prevention
    Management of the disease before the disease becomes advanced ex. screening, treatment
  36. Tertiary Prevention
    Intervention after the disease has caused disability. ex- surgery and/or rehab
  37. Identify steps and sequence in general model for program planning
    • 1. Assessing Needs
    • 2. Setting Goals and Objectives
    • 3. Developing an Intervention
    • 4. Implementing the Intervention
    • 5. Evaluation (progress and outcomes)
  38. Describe differences in 2 approaches for decision-making
    1. Top-Down Approach - žIf the NYC department of health tells you what problems you have in your community.

    2. Grass-Root Approach - you and your neighbors tells the NYC department of health what problems you want addressed
  39. Identify differences in resources and “building blocks (primary, secondary, potential)
    • ž1. Primary: in the neighborhood and in residents
    • e.g. knowledge, skills, personal property  

    • ž2. Secondary:in neighborhood, but controlled by outsiders
    • e.g. schools, hospitals, real estate

    3. žPotential: outside the neighborhood, and controlled by outsiders..e.g. data, information, media, funding
  40. Identify definitions and match examples of goals vs. objectives. 
    • žGoals: Long-term (take longer to achieve)
    • More general in nature and scope
    • Not easily measured (on their own)

    • žObjectives: Shorter-term
    • More specific in scope
    • Written to be more measureable (as steps)
  41. Identify different goals and methods in “health education” vs “health promotion.”
    žHealth Education: Provide information/tools for behavior change....e.x. - Dangers of Smoking

    žHealth Promotion: Change in policy or resources (services). Change harmful physical or social conditions
  42. Describe differences between process and outcome evaluation.
    Process Evalution: Progress Notes

    Outcome Evalution: Assessment after process is completed
  43. Identify definition and key elements of a “coordinated school health program” (CSHP).
    An organized set of policies, procedures, and activities designed to protect and promote the health and well-being of students and staff (to promote learning).
  44. Identify the potential duties of a school nurse 
    • 1. —Conduct health services
    • 2. A Health school environment
    • 3. Refer for Health conditions
    • 4. Promote Policy
    • 5. —Screen and refer for health conditions
  45. Describe essential steps for implementing school health policies
    • 1. Create written policies
    • 2. Distribute to team members
    • 3. Publish in school handbooks
    • 4. Present at public meetings
    • 5. Build awareness/support

    • 6. Use press releases to:
    • 1.Share and publish policies
    • 2.Explain priorities
    • 3.Notify public of changes
  46. Identify three types of school health services recommended by AAP
    1)State Mandated: Verify immunization, Report infections, Health screenings

    2) Assess “minor” health complaints:Administer required medications, Care for special needs

    3) Emergency services:urgentcare
  47. Identify examples of physical school environment
    • —Physical Environment: —Location/age of buildings
    • —Traffic patterns/transportation, Indoor air quality, Pest/rodent, management, Temperature
    • control —lighting, heating, acoustics
    • —Water supply/quality
    • —Sanitation and food services
    • —Playground safety
  48. Identify examples of pychosocial school environment
    • —Psycho-social:
    • —Attitudes of teachers and staff
    • —Behavior of teachers
    • —Interactions among students
    • —Feeling safety and secure
    • —Promoting learning
    • —Open communication
    • —Reducing anxiety and stress
    • Awareness of rules/standards
  49. Identify recommended topics in a school “health
    • Mental and Emotional Health
    • Injury Prevention
    • Sexual heath
    • Healthy eating
  50. Identify potential barriers to “comprehensive” school education
    • Contraversial Topics
    • Health and behavioral issues not seen in the past
    • Lack of Resources
Card Set
HE 312 Chapters 1 -6
HE 312