Bills review

    Two factors lead to TENURE:

    • Satisfaction-being happy with the
    • work one does

    • Satisfactoriness-employer's
    • satisfaction with the individual's performance

    • *The theory is concerned with actual
    • job performance, not just career selection or work adjustment.
  2. Step One:
    Assessment abilities, values, and personality
    • Abilities:
    • "reference
    • dimension for skills" including work skills, aptitudes (predicted, not
    • acquired). To assess abilities, the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB). GATB
    • measures nine abilities.

    • Values:
    • represents a grouping of needs in a job. Values and needs are assessed using
    • the Minn. Importance Question.

    • •  Achievement
    • (making use of one's abilities/sense of accomplishment) VS Comfort
    • (non-stressful work)

    • •  Status
    • (recognition by others) VS Altruism (how one can help others)

    • •  Safety
    • (order/predictability) VS Autonomy (chance to work on their own)
  3. Personality
    • Concerned with how an individual with
    • particular abilities and values interacts with his or her work situation...Four
    • characteristics of personality style

    Celerity-speed with approaching tasks

    Pace-efforts spent in working

    Rhythm-pattern of effort or pace

    • Endurance-how long one is likely to
    • continue on a task
  4. Step Two: Measuring
    the requirements and conditions of occupations
    • There are ways to measure the
    • abilities and values needed for occupation, and this can be done by averaging
    • the scores for people in various occupations on the GATB and MIQ.

    • Ability
    • Patterns: help to describe the important abilities that are required
    • for a vast variety of jobs. Does an individual have the abilities similar to
    • those who are successful in a given occupation?

    • Value
    • Patterns: developed the Minn. Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ)
    • assesses how well an occupation reinforces or meets each of the 20 needs. Does
    • a job meets the needs of an individual?

    • *Combine ability and value patterns
    • to create the Minn. Occupational Classification System (MOCS) 
  5. Step
    Three: Matching abilities, values, and reinforcers
    • When matching and individual's values
    • and abilities to a job, counselors have three tools: the MIQ, GATB, and MOCS.

    • Adjustment
    • Style: the
    • degree of fit between person and environment; how an individual relates to the
    • work environment. 
  6. Four
    qualities that describe this fit:
    • Flexibility- the ability of a person
    • to tolerate unpleasant or difficult aspects of the job

    • Activeness- trying to change the
    • environment

    Reactiveness- changing themselves

    • Perseverance- how long a person can
    • take adverse conditions before changing jobs

    • Adaptive
    • Performance: satisfaction and well being while dealing with
    • change...refers to three variables: Proactive Behavior (adjusting work
    • environment), Reactive Behavior (adjusting ourselves), and Tolerant Behavior (tolerating
    • difficult issues when the other two don't work). 
  7. Job
    Adjustment Counseling
    • •  Work
    • adjustment theory can be used to conceptualize the types of problems that
    • someone can have in adjusting to a job.

    • •  I.E. their
    • skills may not be fully developed for the job or ma not be able to fully
    • develop them, values and needs are not met on the job, does not understand the
    • reinforcer patterns of the work involved, or person could be having problems at
    • home which affect work

    • •  Assess the
    • discrepancies between the individual's values and abilities and the ability
    • patterns and reinforcer patterns of the job.

    • •  Make
    • changes in the work itself so that reinforcer patterns are altered.
  8. Adjustment
    to Retirement
    • •  Try to
    • find activities in a non-work environment that has the same abilities and
    • reinforcers as their previous job.
  9. Applying
    to Women
    • WAT can be expanded to cover two
    • issues related to women: integrating work and family, and sexual harassment.
    • Could help determine things to add to needs list. 
  10. CHAPTER 5:
    • •  Career
    • choice and adjustment are an extension of a person's personality.

    • •  People
    • express themselves and their interests and values through work choices and
    • experiences.

    • •  Holland
    • assumes that people's impressions and generalizations about work are generally
    • accurate.
  11. The Six
    • Realistic:
    • likes
    • to work with animals, tools or machines, avoids social things like teaching and
    • informing. Skills in mechanical/electrical areas. Values practical things.

    • Investigative:
    • likes
    • to study, solve problems, avoids leading or persuading people. Good at
    • understanding problems, and values science. Sees self as precise, scientific,
    • and intellectual.

    • Artistic: likes to
    • do creative activities like art, drama, dance, music, or writing. Avoids order
    • and repetition. Has good artistic abilities. Values creativity. Sees self as
    • expressive, original and independent.

    • Social: likes to
    • do things to help people, like teaching, nursing, providing information. Avoids
    • machines and tools. Good at teaching, counseling, nursing. Values helping
    • people and solving social problems. Sees self as helpful, friendly, and
    • trustworthy.

    • Enterprising:
    • likes
    • to lead and persuade people, sell things and ideas. Avoids activities that
    • require careful observation and analytical thinking. Good at leading people,
    • and sales. Values success in politics, leadership, or business. Sees self as
    • energetic, ambitious and sociable.

    • Conventional:
    • likes
    • to work with numbers, records, and orderly things. Avoids ambiguous,
    • unstructured activities. Good at working with written records and numbers in a
    • systematic way. Values success in business. Sees self as orderly and following
    • a set plan. 
  12. *Combination of types

    3-Letter codes
    • People do not fit just one Holland
    • code type

    • Instruments have been developed:
    • Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Self Directed Search (SDS)
  13. Explanatory
    • CONGRUENCE is the relationship of the
    • personality to the environment.

    • *SIE individual is highly congruent
    • with SIE job.

    • DIFFERENTIATION is how people and
    • environments may differ in terms of how clearly they belong to one type.

    • *Highly differentiated means that you
    • are more dominant in one type.

    • Implications: UNDIFFERENTIATED people
    • may have more difficulty making career decisions...our goal is to help them
    • differentiate and broaden their knowledge of their interests, values, and
    • abilities within each of the six types.

    • CONSISTENCY is the similarity or
    • dissimilarity of types. The closer the types are on the hexagon, the more
    • consistent.
  14. IDENTITY is the clarity and stability
    of a person's current and future goals. 
    • A CLEAR individual's identity would be:
    • stable, with articulate career plans, contingency plans, knowledge of self,
    • knowledge of work, and job search strategies.

    • A DIFFUSE individual's identity would be:
    • unstable, unable to state career plans, no contingency plans, little knowledge
    • of self, little knowledge of work, few job search strategies.
  15. The Occupation Finder
    • look through it to get an idea of
    • what types might do what type of work. Covers a thousand of the more common
    • occupations.

    • The Education Finder...identifies
    • more than 750 programs of study.

    • The Dictionary of Holland
    • Occupational Codes...lists 12,099 occupations sorted by Holland code.
  16. Assessment
    • Vocational Preference Inventory:
    • initiated before Holland, but is now used with the SDS.

    • Career Attitudes and Strategies
    • Inventory: helps assess the views of adults toward work.

    • Position Classification Inventory:
    • helps classify positions according to Holland type. Given to current workers,
    • to help determine the Holland code for a job.

    • Environmental Identity Scale: helps
    • assess the workers views about the explicitness and consistency of employers'
    • goals, work rules, and rewards.
  17. Gender
    • Women tend to score higher on Social,
    • Artistic, and Conventional scales than men.

    • Holland's model works well across
    • gender.
  18. Cross-Culturally
    • : has been
    • studied in many countries, but has not always been validated in places like
    • China and South Africa.
  19. Counselor
    • Congruence of client and counselor
    • types is a potential issue. Most counselors are Social, with SI, SA, & SE
    • being the most common.
Card Set
Bills review
chapter 4