Constructivist and Narrative
Approaches to Career Development
- Constructivism is a psychological approach that has developed out of a
- philosophical position, post-modernism
- -Post-modernism, take a rational approach that emphasizes scientific
- proof and is a reflection of advances in technology and science.
- -Postmodernism reflects a multicultural diverse world in which
- psychologist, counselors, philosophers, and others have recognized that
- different individuals can have their own construct or view of what is real for
- - Constructivist view individuals as creating their own views of events
- and relationships in their lives.
- Clients narrate, or tell about their past and present career development
- and construct their future career. Listening to the description of the clients
- live can help a consular to assist them in future career decisions.
- -There are three components to creating a tory SETTING, ACTION,
- In narrative
- counseling, both client and counselor learn from the client’s narration of the
Goals of Assessment in Narrative
Sorting out significant data.
- Guideline must be made in order to sort out significant data.
- Story should include emphasis on clients past life.
- - Listing to a narrative is to identify a pattern in the client’s lives.
- Not on the chronological events but the meaning of those events.
- - Form a sense of the client’s identity, clients identity consists of
- both story and approach in how the client tells the story.
- -Listening to narrative and assessing it is to learn about the client’s
- goals for the future.
Cochran’s Narrative Career
- The first three
- episodes emphasized making meaning out of the career narrative: elaborating a
- career problem, composing a life history, founding a future narrative.
Composing a life History
- - 1st intention. First stage of trait and factor theory is to
- gather information about clients’ interests, values, abilities, and motives.
- - 2nd intention is to attend to the way individuals select and
- organize their life stories.
- _ In addition to asking clients to describe their life histories, several
- techniques those counselors can use in composing a life history. Four of these techniques
- are a success, experiences, lifelines, the career-o- gram, and life chapters.
- Client to make a list
- of activities that were enjoyable and in which the client felt a sense of accomplishment.
- Abilities, skills, special knowledge, or charter traits such as being honest.
- Record important life experiences and put them
- in chronological order on the paper.
- Group’s important
- factors in a person’s development into categories, and then draws lines from
- one to another to indicate where connections exist.
- The clients can be
- told to imagine that his or her life is like a book and that he or she is to
- make the important chapters in his or her life.
Eliciting a Future Narrative
- - This stage focuses on evaluation of one’s strength, interests, and
- These include success experiences, lifetime, career-o-gram, and life chapters.
- - There are five sections: missions, strengths, work needs,
- vulnerabilities, and possibilities.
Action is a significant component of narrative career counseling.
- - They need to try out variety of actions, the more active the
- exploration the more successful the outcome.
Changing a Life Structure
- Clients expect change to a situation, oneself or
Enacting a Role
- Trying things out is
- away of trying to make ones desired goal possible.
Crystallizing a Decision
- when a gap between a client’s career problem and the idea or possible solutions
- - Cochran believes that crystallizing can be facilitated in three ways:
- identifying and eliminating obstruction, actualizing opportunities, and
- reflecting on career decisions.
Savickas’s Career Construction
- Views career theory from a social
- constructionist point of view. He views Hollands hexagon and super stages as
- social constructs, and is less concerned about viewing them from a scientific
- point of view than from the point of view of the client.
- - What’s important for Savivkas is
- the adaptation to the environment and events that individuals face.
Developmental Tasks of Career Adaptability
- -Their interests, capacities, and values are changing. Stories often
- reflect these changes, as interests can be more fully developed than fantasies.
- - 15-25 years of age, individuals are exploring a number of career possibilities.
- Clarification of what they may want to do, how they learn jobs, how they did in
- their part time positions, and whether they want more education.
- Is between the ages of 45-65, often include
- holding onto one’s job, while at the same time learning more about what is
- required in the job and dealing with new technological adventurers.
- Around the age of 65, individuals think about the possibility of loosing
- their job due to health or physical limitations.
- -Thoughts of planning for their retirement and actually retiring are
- tasks that individuals may discuss with a counselor at this point in their
Dimensions of Career Adaptability
- Savickas concerns are not only with developmental tasks of career
- adaptability but also the process of adapting.
- - Adaptability refers to the individual, where as psychological maturity
- involves comparison with other individuals.
- - Individuals become concerned with their indifferent or lack of action
- on an issue dealing with career choice or work adjustment. People are likely to
- plan for the future.
- They may need to
- become more diverse in their life choices because they feel they have relatively
- no control over their lives.
- They some times lack
- confidence to fully explore possibilities.
- Is derived from Adler lifestyle
- concept. Adler was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud. Born in 1870 and lived in
- Vienna, Austria.
- - Knowing a persons lifestyle provides a means of understanding the basic
- themes in that person’s life.
- Lifestyle is typically developed by the ages
- of four to six. Observed children interacting with each other and believed that
- their behavior at that age influenced them in later life.
- - Recollections are significant aspect of determining the person’s
Five Major Life Tasks
- five major interrelated tasks:
- spiritual development, occupation, society, and love.
Career Counseling Using the Career Construction Model
Career Styles Interview
- It provides questions to ask clients that will
- help the counselor identify the lifestyle of the individual.
Career counseling Using Career
- - People talk about things that matter and have meaning to them. Savickas
- suggests that counselors use the same language as clients, such as favorite
- words or metaphors that the client uses.
1. Attending to Verbs
2. Reviewing counseling goals.
Examining Headlines of the
- Telling to create a catchy headline so that
- the client and counselor can help compress the story.
The Role of Assessment
- Standard interest inventories,
- values inventories, and tests of ability and achievement play a minor role in
- constructivist career counseling.
- - Applying inventories or tests that are used for all individuals may not
- help in understanding the perceptual world of client.
- - Because constructivist and narrative career counselors are focused on
- understanding the client’s perception of their career problems and the
- constructs that they use to see their world, constructivist counselors are
- cautious about using instruments that impose a test or inventory developer’s
- set of constructs on the client.
The Role of Occupational
- Constructivist and Narrative career counselors
- are concerned not only with constructs that individuals use to see themselves,
- but also with constructs that they use in viewing the world around them.