Amino acids

  1. What is a knockout mouse?

    What is the purpose of creating knockout mice?
    Knockout mouse: genetically engineered mouse in which researchers have inactivated an existing gene (by replacing it/disrupting it w/ artificial DNA) to produce a change in phenotype. 

    To study functions of genes that have been sequenced.
  2. What are the 6 steps required in producing a knockout mouse?
    • 1. Target specific gene to eliminate exons and put in a Neo gene for selection
    • 2. Gene lacks certain exons and codes for defective protein.
    • 3. Selet the embryonic stem cells containing targeted defective gene by growing antibiotic (cells that express Neo (neomycin) will grow. Cells w/o it will die). 
    • 4. Inject ES cell into blastocyst
    • 5. Implant blastocyst into pseudo-pregnant mouse. 
  3. Which proteins can be absorbed by intestine?
    Maternal antibodies in breast milk
  4. What is stomach's role in protein digestion? (2)
    1. HCl denatures proteins for subsequent hydrolysis by proteases

    2. Pepsinogen is secreted from chief cells and is activated to pepsin by HCl or autocatalytically by other (activated) pepsin molecules.
  5. What is pancreas's role in protein digestion?
    Pancreas produces pancreatic proteases that cleave large polypeptides from stomach into oligopeptides/amino acids. 
  6. How specific are pancreatic proteases? What are they specific to?
    Each protease has a different specificity for the R group adjacent to the peptide bond. 
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Amino acids
amino acids yo