1. USDA
    regulates the development of biologics such as vaccines
  2. EPA
    regulates the development and approval of animal topical pesticides
  3. Exra lable drugs
    drugs that have more than one use ie ivermection
  4. Central Nervous system
    Brain and Spinal cord
  5. Peripheral Nervous System
    Somatic nervous system (voluntary)

    • Autonomic nervous system
    • (involuntary)
  6. 2 Parts of the Atomatic nervous system
    • Sympathetic nervous system (RUN!)
    •       ~Adrenergic   ~Fight or flight

    • Parasympathetic nervous system
    •       cholinergic     “SLUD”
    •              Salivation
    •              Lacrimation
    •              Urination
    •              Defecation
  7. afferent vs efferent nerves
    • Afferent refers to pathways leading to the cortex (ie, sensory).
    • Efferent are pathways leading away (ie, motor). You are *affected* by a
    • situation, you *effect* change on someone else.
  8. adrenergic agents

    To stimulate heart beat during arrest

    Reverse hypotension/bronchoconstriction

    Promote vasoconstriction during bleeding

    Treat urinary incontinence

    Treat glaucoma (decrease aqueous humor)

    • Examples include PPA for urinary incontinence and xylazine (alpha-2 agonist) for
    • sedation
  9. Adrenergic blocking agents
    To block the sympathetic system

    Examples include yohimbine and acepromazine
  10. Reversels
    Xylazine is an alpha-2 agonist which can be reversed with Yohimbine (alpha-2 antagonist) or Atipamezole (Antisedan).

    Meperidine (Demerol) is an opioid agonist that can be reversed with Naloxone (Narcan, an opioiod antagonist.)

    • Medetomidine (Domitor) is an alpha adrenergic
    • drug that can often be reversed with Atipamezole (Antisedan).
  11. Central nervous system drugs
    Tranquilizers (acepromazine)

    Barbiturates (Thiopental)

    Dissociatives (Ketamine)

    Opioids (Morphine)

    Neuroleptanalgesics (fentanyl and droperidol)

    Seizure inhibitories (Valium, phenobarbital)

    Euthanasia (pentobarbital sodium)
  12. Active and Passive immunity
    Active immunity- immunity that occurs by an animal’s own  immune response after exposure to foreign antigen.

    Passive immunity- immunity that occurs by administration of antibody produced in another individual.
  13. Example of each...
    Example of active immunity:  getting the chicken pox, receiving a vaccine

    • Passive
    • immunity:  colostrum.  Receiving a blood
    • transfusion with needed antibodies to a certain disease.
  14. Innate immunity cells and Adsptive cell examples
    • the immune system that is set up in
    • your body already to attack foreign things—example, neutrophils, basophils—they are
    • nonspecific

    Adaptive cell - T cell
  15. Innate immune system vs Adaptive ammunity
    • Innate immunity is responsible for attacking
    • the foreign body or bacteria that has never been seen before

    Adaptive immunity remembers past infections or responds to vaccines
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