endocrine and the ear

  1. What are the three parts of the ear?
    • external outer ear
    • middle ear (tampanic cavity)
    • internal (inner) ear
  2. what 2 sections of the ear are involved with just hearing?
    external and middle
  3. which part of the ear functions not only for hearing but also for balance?
    Internal ear
  4. what are the parts of the external ear?
    • auricle (pinna)
    • external acoustic meatus
    • tympanic membrane
  5. the auricle of the external ear is made of what two parts?
    • helix (rim)
    • lobule (earlobe)
  6. what are the 3 functions of the tympanic membrane
    • boundry between external and middle ear
    • connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to sound
    • transfers sound energy to the bones of the middle ear
  7. what is the middle ear
    small air filled mucosa lined cavity in the temporal bone 
  8. the middle ear is flanked laterally by what ?
    the eardrum
  9. what connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx?
    the pharyngotympanic or eustachian or auditory tube 
  10. what is the function of the pharyngotympanic tube?
    equalize pressure in the middle ear cavity with the external air pressure
  11. what are the 3 small bones in the tympanic cavity 
    malleus, incus, and stapes
  12. what is the function of the ear ossicles (3 bones)
    transmits vibratory motion of the eardrum
  13. what are the 2 labryrinth of the internal ear
    • bony labyrinth
    • membranous labyrinth
  14. where are the labyrinth of the internal ear?
    temporal bone
  15. what are the three parts of the bony labyrinth
    • vestibule
    • semicircle canals 
    • cochlea
  16. the bony labyrinth is filled with a sodium rich substance called
  17. what are the membranous labyrinth
    series of sacs within the bony labyrinth
  18. what potassium rich substance fills the membranous membrane
  19. what are the vestibular receptors called
  20. what are the semicircular receptors
    cristae ampullarus
  21. what does the vestibular apparatus consist of
    equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibule 
  22. what does the vestibular receptors monitor
    static equilibrium
  23. what does the semicircular canal receptors monitor 
    dynamic equilibrium
  24. what is the vestibule 
    central egg shaped cavity of the bony labyrinth
  25. the vestible contains 2 membrenous sacs what are they?
    • saccule
    • utricle
  26. the saccule is continuous with what 
    cochlear duct
  27. the utricle is continuous with what?
    semicircular canals
  28. what is the functions of the saccule and the utricle?
    • house equilibrium receptor regions (maculae)
    • respond to gravity and changes in the position of the head
  29. maculae are the sensory receptors for what type of equilibrium?
  30. what are the functions of maculae?
    monitor the position of the head in space necessary for the control of posture
  31. maculae in the utricle respond to what type of movement of the head; horizontal side to side or verticle?
    horizontal side to side
  32. maculae in the saccule respond to what type of movement of the head; horizontal side to side or verticle?
  33. what are the 3 canals that make up the semicircular canals?
    • anterior
    • lateral
    • posterior
  34. what lines the canals and what does it communicate with?
    membranous semicircular ducts line the canals and communicate with the utricle
  35. the ampulla of each canal of the semicircular canals house an equilibrium receptor region called 
    the crista ampullaris
  36. the cristae ampullaris responds to what type of movements of the head?
  37. from what does the cochlea extend?
    the vestibule
  38. what does the cochlear duct house?
    body of corti
  39. the cavity of the cochlea is divided into how many chambers?
  40. the cochlear branch of nerve VIII runs from where to where?
    the organ of corti to the brain
  41. the endocrine system influences metabolic activities by what means?
    hormones transported in the blood
  42. how do responses to the endocrine system compare to those of the nervous system
    the responses are slower but last longer
  43. what are 5 endocrine glands 
    • pituitary
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid 
    • adrenal
    • pineal gland
  44. the hypothalamus has another function other than just endocrine what is it
  45. what are some other tissues and organs that produce hormones? (5) 
    • adipose cells 
    • thymus 
    • cells in the walls of the small intestine
    • stomach
    • kidneys
    • heart
  46. what are the chemical messengers that carry long distance chemical signals that travel in blood and in lymph?
  47. hormones have two classifications they are?
    • steroid
    • non-steroid
  48. what is steroid hormones structurally related to?
  49. are steroid hormones lipid soluble
  50. what 3 glands secrete steroid hormones?
    • gonads
    • adrenal cortex
    • placenta
  51. nonsteroid hormones are structurally related to what?
  52. are non-steroid hormones lipid soluble?
  53. what five things secrete non-steroid hormones?
    • pituitary
    • parathyroid
    • heart
    • stomach
    • liver 
    • kidneys
  54. do steroid or non-steroid hormones enter cells?
  55. do steroid or non-steroid hormones activate specific genes to produce specific protiens?
  56. do steroid or non-steroid hormones bind to receptors on as target cell membranes?
  57. are steroid or non-steroid hormones water soluble?
  58. are steroid or non-steroid hormones lipid soluble?
  59. do steroid or non-steroid hormones work through intermediate mechanisms to activate existing enzymes?
  60. do steroid or non-steroid hormones have the fastest action?
    non steroid
  61. Where are adrenocorticotropic receptors only found?
    certain cells of the adrenal cortex
  62. thyroxin receptors are found where ?
    nearly all the cells of the body
  63. what 3 factors does target cell activation depend on?
    • blood levels of the hormone
    • relative number of receptors on or in the target cell
    • affinity of binding between receptor and hormone
  64. hormones circulate through the blood in one of two states what are they?
    free or bound
  65. what are the 2 hormones that need carriers?
    • steroids
    • thyroid hormone
  66. steroid and thyroid hormones need a carrier all other hormones circulate without carriers what is the carrier used?
    plasma protiens
  67. the concentration of a circulating hormone reflects what ?
    • rate of release 
    • speed of inactivation and removal from the body
  68. hormones are removed from the blood by what 4 things
    • degrading enzymes
    • kidneys
    • liver
    • half life: the time required for a hormones blood level to decrease by half
  69. what are the two ways multiple hormones may act?
    • synergism
    • antagonism
  70. what occurs in hormone synergism?
    more than one hormone produces the same effect on a target cell
  71. what occurs in hormone antagonism
    one or more hormones opposes the action of another hormone
  72. blood levels of hormones controled by?
    negative feedback system
  73. how do blood levels of hormones vary?
    only within a narrow desireable range
  74. hormones are synthisized and released in response to what 3 things?
    • humoral stimuli
    • neural stimuli
    • hormonal stimuli
  75. how does a humoral stimuli stimulate secretion of hormones?
    by changing blood levels of ions and nutrients 
  76. neural stimuli?
    nerve fibers stimulate hormonal release
  77. how does hormonal stimuli stimulate hormone release?
    hormones stimulate other endocrine glands to relesase thier hormones
  78. what is nervous system modulation?
    the nervous system modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and thier negative feedback mechanisms
  79. what are the 2 lobes of the pituitary?
    • anterior/ adenohypophysis
    • posterior / neurohypophysis
  80. what does the hypophyseal portal system carry?
    releasing and inhibiting hormones to the anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion
  81. what are the 6 anterior pituitary hormones and thier abbreviations?
    • growth hormone (GH)
    • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • lutienizing hormone (LH)
    • prolactin (PRL)
  82. anterior pituitary hormones are all protiens
    True or False?
  83. what 4 out of the 6 anterior pituitary hormones are tropic?
    • TSH
    • ACTH
    • FSH
    • LH
  84. if a hormone is tropic what does it do?
    stimulate the secretion of other endocrine glands
  85. Growthn hormone stimulates most cells but what are its 2 targets
    • bone
    • skeletal muscle
  86. thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates what?
    normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid
  87. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotropin) stimulates what?
    the adrenal cortex to relesase corticosteroids
  88. what 2 hormones are gonadotropins?
    • follicle stimulating hormone
    • lutienizing hormone
  89. FSH stimulates what?
    gamete (egg or sperm) production
  90. LH stimulates or promotes what?
    production of gonadal hormones (absent in prebudecents)
  91. What does Prolactin stimulate?
    milk production
  92. what does the posterior pituitary contain?
    axons of hypothalmic neurons
  93. what does the posterior pituitary store (2)
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
  94. the posterior pituitary releases stored ADH and oxytocin in response to what?
    nerve impulses
  95. what are the functions of oxytocin? (3)
    • stimulates uterine contractions 
    • triggers milk ejection
    • plays a role in the sexual arrousal and orgasm in males and females
  96. what are the functions of the antidiuretic hormone?
    increases water retention
  97. what substance can inhibit the release of ADH and cause excess urine output?
  98. Thyroid gland consists what?
    2 lateral lobes connected by a median mass 
  99. what is the median mass in the thyroid gland called?
  100. thyroid gland prioduces what hormones?
    • thyroid hormone
    • calcitonin
  101. Thyroid Hormone (TH) consists of two related compounds what are they?
    • T4 (thyroxine)
    • T3 (triiodothyronine)
  102. T4 thyoxine how many thyrosine molecules and how many iodine atoms?
    • 2 thyrosine molecules 
    • 4 bound iodine atoms
  103. T3 triiodothyronine contains how many thyrosisne molecules and how many iodine atoms?
    • 2 thyrosines
    • 3 bound iodine atoms
  104. thyroid hormone is also know as the major ____ hormone
  105. thyroid hormone increases _____ _____ and ____ production.
    • metabolioc rate 
    • heat
  106. what is the negative feedback regulation of thyroid hormone release?
    rising levels of TH provide negative feedback inhibition on the release of TSH
  107. calcitonin is an antagonist to what hormone?
    parathyroid hormone PTH
  108. what is the most important hormone in calcium homeostasis?
    parathyroid hormone PTH
  109. does PTH increase or decrease Ca2 levels 
  110. what is the negative feedback control of Parathyroid glands?
    rising Ca2 inhibits PTH release
  111. what are adrenal (suprarenal) glands?
    Paired pyramid shaped organs atop the kidneys
  112. structurally and funtionaly the adrenal suprarenal glands are two glands in one what are the 2 parts?
    • adrenal medulla
    • adrenal cortex
  113. the adrenal medulla is made of what type of tissue?
    nervous tissue
  114. the adrenal medulla is part of the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
  115. the adrenal cortex is made of three layers of what type of tissue?
    glandular tissue
  116. the adrenal cortex synthisize and release what ?
  117. what are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?
    • zona glomerulosa
    • zona fasciculta
    • zona regularis
  118. zona glomerulosa produces what corticosteroid?
  119. what corticosteroid does the zona fasciculata produce?
  120. what corticosteroid does the zona reticularis produce?
    sex hormones or gonadocorticoids
  121. what do mineralcorticoids regulate?
    electrolytes in ECF
  122. what is the most important mineralcorticoid?
  123. aldosterone stimulates what?
    sodium reabsorbtionand water retention by the kidneys
  124. glucocorticoids keep what levels constant?
    blood glucose
  125. how do glucocorticoids maintain blood pressure?
    by increasing the action of vasoconstrictors
  126. glucocorticoids supress what type of responces
  127. what is the most significant glucocorticoid?
  128. cortisol is released in response to what hormone?
  129. what else could trigger the release of cortisol?
    eating patterns and activity, stress
  130. what is the prime metabolic effect of cortisol?
  131. gluconeogenisis is the formation of glucose from what?
    fat and protiens
  132. cortisol promotes rises in what 3 things?
    • blood glucose
    • fatty acids
    • ammino acids
  133. most gonadocorticoids are what?
    • androgens that are converted to testosterone in tissue cells 
    • (estrogen in females)
  134. what does the adrenal medulla secrete? (2)
    epinephrine and norepinephrine
  135. epinephrine and norepinephrine cause what (4)
    • blood glucose to rise 
    • blood vessles to constrict 
    • the heart to beat faster
    • blood to be diverted to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle
  136. epinephrine stimulates what (3) 
    • metabolic activities 
    • bronchial dialation
    • bloodflow to skleletal mauscles and heart
  137. what does norepinephrine influence?
    peripheral vasoconsrtiction and blood pressure
  138. what is the pineal gland?
    samll gland hanging from the roof of the third ventricle
  139. pineal gland secretes what?
  140. melatonin may affect what? (3)
    • timing of sexual maturation
    • day/night cycles
    • psysiological processes that show the rythmic variations (body temp, sleep, appitite)
  141. what is the shape and location of the pancreas?
    trangular shaped behind the stomach
  142. the pancreas has what 2 types of cells
    • exocrine 
    • endocrine
  143. what are the exocrine cells of the pancreas
    acinar cells
  144. what does the acinar cells of the pancreas do?
    produce an enzyme rich juice for digestion
  145. what contains the endocrine cells in the pancreas?
    pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)
  146. what are the 2 endocrine cells located in the pacreatic islets ?
    • alpaha cells
    • beta cells
  147. what does alpha cells produce 
    glucogon (hyperglycemic hormone)
  148. what does the beta cells produce?
    insulin (hypoglycemic hormone)
  149. what is the major target of glucogon?
    the liver
  150. what does glucogon promote in the liver?
    • glycogenolysis
    • gluconeogenesis
    • release of glucose to the blood
  151. what occurs in glycogenolysis?
    break down of glycogen to glucose 
  152. what occurs in gluconeogenesis?
    synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates
  153. glucogon is synergistic with what (both raise blood glucose)
  154. what are the 4 effects of insulin?
    • lowers blood glucose levels
    • enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells
    • participates in neural development and learning and memory 
    • inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
  155. what condition causes an imbalance of insulin?
    diabetes mellitis
  156. what are the three signs of diebetes mellitis?
    • polyuria - huge output of urine
    • polydipsia - excessive thirst
    • polyphagia - excessive hunger
  157. what are "other" hormone producing structures?(5)
    • heart
    • gastrointestinal tract
    • kidneys
    • skin
    • thymus
  158. what hormone does the heart produce?
    atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (also known as atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)) 
  159. kidneys produce what hormones?
    • erythropoietin - production of RBC's
    • Renin - renin-agiotensin mechenism
  160. thymosine is involved in the normal development of what?
    T lymphocytes in the immune response
Card Set
endocrine and the ear
test in the ear and endocrine