molecular biology chapter 10 notes

  1. What do most microbes use as a source of energy
    • the sun
    • reduced organic compounds
    • reduced inorganic compounds
  2. Most respiration involves use of what as fueling?
    electron transpot chain
  3. What's the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
  4. What's the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration
    NO SO4 CO2 Fe or SeO4 and organic acceptors
  5. What is generated as electrons pass through the electron transport chain to the final electron acceptor in respiration
    a proton motive force and is used to synthesize ATP
  6. what kind of electron acceptor does fermentation use
    • endogenous
    • often an intermediate and used to oxidize the organic energy source
  7. How is ATP synthesized in fermentation
    substrate level phosphorylation SLP
  8. T/F
    Fermentation uses an electron transport chain to generate a proton motive force
  9. Three stages of aerobic catabolism
    • 1. large molecules convert to small molecules (polymers to monmers)
    • 2. initial oxidation and egradation to pyruvate
    • 3. oxidation and degredation of pyruvate by TCA cycle
  10. ATP is made primarily in aerobic catabolism by
    oxidative phosphorylation
  11. What enzymes are involved in amphibiolic pathways
    isoenzymes: different ensymes that catalyze the smae reaction
  12. T/F
    Amphibolic pathways are both catabolic and anabolic
  13. 3 common routes for amphibolic pathways
    • Embden Meyerhof
    • pentose phosphate
    • Entner-Doudoroff pathway
  14. The most common pathway for glucose degradation to pyruvate and occurs in cytoplasmic matrix 
    Embden Meyerhof
  15. at what stage of aerobic respiration does the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway occure
    stage two
  16. How many ATP nets in the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
    2 ATP
  17. Which pathway features transketolase and transaldolase reactions and can operate aeroibically or anaerobically
    Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  18. how many NADPH does the Pentose Phosphate Pathway net
    12 NADPH
  19. also known as the citric acid cycle and the kreb's cycle, this common cycle is a major source of C skeletons for biosynthesis and reducing power for energy production
    TCA cycle
  20. for each acetyl-CoA molecule oxidized, TCA cycle generates
    • – 2 molecules of CO2
    • – 3 molecules of NADH
    • – one FADH2
    • – one GTP
  21. how many ATP molecules synthesized directly from oxidation of glucose to CO2
    4 ATP
  22. when is most ATP made?
    (from glucose degradation) are oxidized in electron transport chain (ETC)
  23. the (from glucose degradation) are oxidized in electron transport chain (ETC) transports electrons from  where to a terminal e acceptor
    NADH and FADH2
  24. where are ETC carriers located on eucaryotic cells
    within the inner mitochondrial membrane
  25. Chemiosmotic hypothesis 
    • – electron transport chain is organized so that protons move out of the mitochondrial matrix as electrons are transported down the chain
    • – This proton expulsion produces a concentration gradient of protons and a charge gradient
    • – The combined chemical and electrical potential difference make up the proton motive force (PMF)
  26. where are procaryotic etcs located
    within the plasma membrane
  27. how are procaryotic etc's differenent from mitochondrial
    • different e carriers
    • branched or shorter
    • may be less efficient
  28. how does the proton motive force drive atp synthesis
    diffusion of protons back across membrane 
  29. what enzyme uses PMF to catalyze ATP synthesis
    ATP synthase
  30. inhibit electron flow through ETC
  31. allow electron flow, but disconnect it from oxidative phosphoylation
    allow movement of ions across membrane without activating ATP synthase
  32. P/O ratio
    number of ATP generated per oxygen reduced
  33. Theroretical yeild vs actual yield of ATP from aerobic respiration
    • theo=38
    • acutal=30
  34. how much ATP does glycolysis yeild in anerobic conditions
  35. uses nitrate as terminal e acceptor
    unavailable to cell for assimalation (uptake)
    dissimilatory nitrate reduction
  36. reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas 
    can lose soil fertility
  37. how is atp produced in microbial fermentation
    only by substrate level phosphorylation
  38. what is the endogenous e acceptor in microbial fermentation
    pyruvate and the substrate is only partially oxidized
  39. are converted to other sugars that enter glycolytic pathway
  40. cleaved by hydrolases or phosphorylases
    disaccharides and polysaccharides
  41. used as an energy source in absence of external carbon energy sources
    reserve polymers
  42. examples of some reverse polymers
    glycogen, starch, Poly-β-hydoxybuterate (PHB)
  43. a common energy source that is hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids by lipases
  44. fatty acids are often oxidized via which pathway
     β-oxidation pathway
  45. hydrolyzes protein to amino acids
  46. removes amino group from amino acid
    organic acid is converted to a pyruvate
  47. electrons released from an inorganic molecule and transferred to terminal electron aceptor (usually O2) by etc
  48. nitrosomonas oxidize what
  49. nitrobacter oxidize what
  50. Calvin cycle requires what as electron source to fix (reduce) CO2
  51. T/F
    chemolithotrophs can change their metabolism to better fit their environment (hetero to auto, litho to organo)
  52. 2 part process of photosynthesis
    light reactions and dark reactions
  53. light reactions:
    light energy is trapped and converted to chemical energy
  54. dark reactions: 
    energy produced in the light reactions is used to reduce CO2 and synthesize cell constituents 
  55. which orgnaisms carry out oxygenic photosynthesis
    eucaryotes and cyanobacteria
  56. a membrane protein which functions as a light driven proton pump. archaea have it
  57. T/F
    Bacteriorhodopsin-Based Phototrophy uses an electron transport chain
  58. why isn't oxygen produced in anoxygenic photosynthsis
    because water isn't used as an electron source
  59. have conjugated double bond rings cooridinated with Mg
    pyrrol rings
  60. absorb different light wavelengths than chlorophylls, e.g., carotenoids and phycobiliproteins
    accessory pigments
  61. highly organized arrays of chlorophylls and accessory pigments
  62. antenna and its associated reaction-center chlorophyll
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molecular biology chapter 10 notes
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