Macroevolution (Exam 3)

  1. Allolopatric Speciation
    a single population gets divided by a physical barrier; the seperated populations diverge and become different species 
  2. Sympatric Speciation
    some type of factor blocks gene flow, effectively isolates the population even though they are in the same location
  3. Biological Species Concept
    A species is a population or group of population whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce viable, fertile offspring, but who can't produce fertile offspring with members of another species 
  4. Difference Between Viability and Fertility
    • viability - aborted, doesn't develop
    • fertility - produces sterile organism
  5. Prezygotic Barriers 
    barriers that keep 2 different species from coming together and producing a zygote
  6. Postzygotic Barriers 
    zygote is formed but the offspring are not viable / fertile 
  7. List the 5 Prezygotic Barriers
    • 1. Habitat Isolation
    • 2. Behavioral Isolation
    • 3. Temporal Isolation
    • 4. Mechanical Isolation
    • 5. Gametic Isolation
  8. List the 3 Postzygotic Barriers 
    • 1. Reduced Hybrid Viability - zygote produced, embryo is weak and aborted, 
    • 2. Reduced Hybrid Fertility - hybrid is viable but infertile
    • 3. Hybrid Breakdown - 1st generation hybrid is viable and fertile, 2nd generation is infertile 
  9. Problems with Biological Species Concept
    • 1. asexual organisms
    • 2. fossils
    • 3. too rigid
  10. Morphological Species Concept 
    group organisms that look alike together
  11. Ecological Species Concept
    organize groups according to their ecological niche
  12. Phylogenetic Species Concept
    identifying species based on their evolutionary history
  13. Why are Viruses not Living Organisms
    • 1. are not cells
    • 2. can't make ATP
    • 3. can't reproduce themselves 
    • 4. considered intracellular parasites
  14. Why Biologists Study Viruses
    • 1. they cause disease 
    • 2. take advantage of the way they enter cells
  15. Epidemic
    disease that affects a large number of people at the same time
  16. Virulent
    how much damage a virus causes
  17. What does HIV and AIDS stand for?
    • AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    • HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  18. 2 Types of Viruses
    • 1. Nonenveloped - capsid, genome
    • 2. Enveloped - envelope (phospholipid bilayer), capsid, genome
  19. Describe Reproduction Habits for Enveloped and Nonenveloped Viruses
    • Enveloped - viruses made inside host cell, bud off host cell taking some plasma membrane
    • Nonenveloped - viruses made inside host cell, host cell ruptures as viruses are released
  20. Lytic Reproduction Cycle
    virus infects the cell taking over cell machinery causing it to make new viruses, cell ruptures and releases new viruses
  21. Lysogenic Reproduction Cycle
    virus infects the host cell and inserts its genome into the host cell's genome, everytime the host cell divides it copies and passes on the viral genome
  22. 2 Major Branches of Bacteria 
    • 1. Bacteria 
    • 2. Archaea "extreme bacteria" 
  23. Bacterial Shapes
    • 1. Spherical - cocci
    • 2. Rod-Shaped - bacilli
    • 3. Spiral - Shaped - Spirilla
  24. Describe What Each is Reinforced With in Their Cell Wall, plants, fungi, bacteria
    • plants - cellulose
    • fungi - chitin
    • bacteria - peptidoglycan
  25. Explain the Difference between Gram - Positive and Gram - Negative
    • positive: pick up gram stain and appear purple, thick layer of peptidoglycan, easy to kill with antibiotics
    • negative: don't pick up gram stain and appear pink, has outer membrane surrounding thin layer of peptidoglycan
  26. Capsule
    sticky layer outside cell wall, allows cells to stick together in a colony, cells can stick to their substrate
  27. Pili
    surface appendages of various types that hold cells together during conjugation
  28. Describe the different methods of movement for bacteria
    • 1. flagella - long whip - like structures
    • 2. spiral through environment using structures similar to flagella
    • 3. glide - secrete a slimy substance and use structure on the bottom of the cell to glide 
  29. Taxis 
    move towards or away from a stimulus
  30. chemotaxis
    move towards or away from a chemical 
  31. phototaxis
    move towards or away from light, photosynthetic organisms
  32. Factors that affect bacterial growth
    temperature, pH, salt, nutrient sources
  33. endospore
    environmentally resistant stage
  34. describe difference between phototrophs and chemotrophs
    • phototrophs - get energy from light
    • chemotrophs - get energy from chemicals in the environment

    understand how to mix terms (photoheterotrophs)
  35. describe diference between autotrophs and heterotrophs
    • autotrophs - get carbon from Carbon Dioxide
    • heterotrophs - get carbon from organic molecules

    understand how to mix terms (chemoautotrophs)
  36. Obligate Aerobes
    must have oxygen, aerobic respiration, respiration in presence of oxygen
  37. Facultative Anaerobes
    may prefer an anerobic environment, but can live in an aerobic environment
  38. Obligate Anaerobes
    must live in an oxygen-free environment, anaerobic respiration, respiration without oxygen
  39. Extreme Thermophiles
    thrive in hot environments 
  40. Extreme Halophites
    live in high saline environment
  41. Methanogens
    release methane as they gain energy
  42. 3 Environments That Methanogens Live in
    • 1. gut of animals (esp. ones with high cellulose diet)
    • 2. swamps and marshes where soil is saturated with water and therefore low in oxgen
    • 3. humans use them in sewage treatment plants
  43. Mixotroph
    photoautotrophic and chemoheterotrophic
  44. 3 Categories of Protists
    • 1. Ingestive Protists - "animal-like" protists; protozoans 
    • 2. Absorptive Protists - "fungi-like" protists; slime molds
    • 3. Photosynthetic Protists - "plant-like" protists; algae
  45. Water Molds 
    decompose dead water organisms
  46. Downy Mildew
    plant pathogens, Irish Potato Famine
  47. Red Tides
    turn water red, cause fish kills, toxins can accumulate in shellfish, caused by pollution of nitrates and phosphates
  48. Examples of Photosynthetic Protists
    dinoflagellates, diatoms, multicellular (seaweed)
  49. Thallus
    body of seaweed
  50. Parts of Seaweed
    • Blade - leaf-like structure
    • Stipe - stem-like structure
    • Holdfast - suctions to substrate
  51. 3 Groups of Seaweed
    • Red Algae (Rhotophyta): have red pigment, pigment is higher in concentration as plant is deeper in ocean
    • Brown Algae (Phaeophyta): brown to brown-green in color, includes kelps, carrageenan (red algae) / alginate (brown algae)
    • Green Algae (Chlorophyta): grass-green in color, closest living relatives to plants 
  52. Meiosis
    cuts number of chromosomes in half
  53. Mitosis
    process where cells are cloned 
  54. Know How Alternation of Generations Works
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  55. What do Gametophytes and Sporophytes Produce
    • Gametophytes(n) - gametes(n) - mitosis 
    • Sporophytes(2n) - spores(n) - meiosis
  56. Isomorphic
    sporophyte and gametophytes have same form
  57. Heteromorphic
    sporophyte and gametophytes have different forms
  58. Shoot
    Aboveground portion of plant
  59. Root
    Belowground portion of plant
  60. 4 Major Evolutionary Advances
    • 1. Move from aquatic to terrestrial environment, (a) protect spores using sporopollenin (b) protect gametes by enclosing them in gametangia
    • 2. Evolution of Vascular Tissue
    • 3. Evolution of Seeds
    • 4. Evolution of Flowering Plants
  61. Gametangia
    general term for container that has gametes
  62. Name and Describe the 2 Types of Vascular Tissue
    • Xylem: moves water / minerals from roots to other parts
    • Phloem: sugars and nutrients from leaves to where needed 
  63. 3 Components of a Seed
    Protective Coat, Embryo, Food Supply
  64. Nonvascular Plants
    • Bryophytes, Dominant Generation Gametophyte 
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  65. Describe Mosses, Liverworts, Hornworts
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  66. Difference Between Microspores and Megaspores
    • Microspores: antheridium, male gametophyte 
    • Megaspores: archegonium, female gametophyte
  67. Sori
    clusters of sporangia
  68. Describe the Seedless Vascular Phylums
    • Lycophyta: club mosses, ground pines; NOT MOSSES
    • Spenophyta: horsetails, scouring rushes; silica in cell walls
    • Pterophyta: Ferns

  69. Carboniferous Period
    peak of seedless vascular plant diversity, became our coal deposits
  70. Gymnosperms
    Plants, with naked seeds, vascular tissue and dominant sporophyte generation (cone plants); male - pollen, female - female gametophyte, heterosporous
  71. Difference between Staminate Cones and Ovulate Cones
    • Staminate: male cones (pollen)
    • Ovulate: female cones (eggs)
  72. Name and Describe the Phylums of Gymnosperms
    • Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Plantae
    • 1. Phylum Cycadophyta: cycads, look like palm treesbut have large cone in middle
    • 2. Phylum Ginkgophyta: Ginkgo biloba, landscaping
    • 3. Phylum Gnetophyta: Gnetum sp. 
    • 4. Phylum Coniferophyta: "evergreens", sequoia
  73. 3 Things That Could Happen When 2 Populations Come Back Together After Being Seperated For a Long Time
    • 1. Interbreed, be same species
    • 2. Speciation, can't interbreed
    • 3. Form a Stable Hybrid
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Macroevolution (Exam 3)