1. The gas exchange portion of the respiratory system consists of the:
A. Alveolar structures and pulmonary capillaries
2. The term vital capacity refers to: 4600, total lung = 5800
D) b. Maximal amount of air that can be taken in and exhaled with forceful
3. Most of the carbon dioxide that is produced as a result of tissue metabolism is carried in the blood in the form of:
4. The amount of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation is called the:
C. Residual volume
5. Surfactant is a phospholipid that reduces
D. Alveolar surface tension
6. The central chemoreceptors for respiratory control are
D. Responsive primarily to changes in CO2
7. Which of the following statements about the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is true?
C. The curve shifts to the right with hypercapnia
8. Cor Pulmonale
D) a. Occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension
b. Is right sided heart failure
d. A and B
9. Given the following muscles, which of the following are involved with increasing the volume of the thorax? 1. Diaphragm 2. External intercostals 3. Internal intercostals 4. Rectus abdominus
E. 1, 2
10.During expiration, the intrapulmonary pressure must
A. Greater than atmospheric pressure
11.The major reason for air trapping in emphysema is
C. Loss of lung elasticity emphysema
12.Introduction of air into the pleural cavity is called
13.All of the following are part of the pathophysiology of emphysema except:
C. excessive production of mucus or empyema
14.Which of the following would increase the rate of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
D. all of these would decrease the rate of gas exchange
15.Oxygen diffusion from the alveolus to the alveolar capillary occurs because
D. The PO2 is less in the capillary than in the alveolus
16.Which of the following statements is the best description of a pneumothorax?
A. Air within the pleural cavity
17.The usual course of pneumococcal lobar pneumonia terminates with:
C. Complete resolution of the pulmonary inflammation
18.Inadequately treated empyema (pus in membrane) may result in which of the following conditions?
19.Which of the following conditions could cause compression pneumothorax?
A) a. Pleural effusion
d. A and B
20.Atelectasis refers to:
D. Incomplete expansion of a portion of the lung
21.The characteristic X-ray findings in tuberculosis include
B. Ghon tubercles
22.Extrinsic asthma is associated with
D. IgE-mediated airway inflammation
23.Which of the following would be indicative of a left tension pneumothorax?
C. Tracheal deviation to the right
24.Pulmonary emboli usually: 1. Obstruct blood supply to the lung parenchyma 2. Have origins from thrombi in the legs 3. Occlude pulmonary vein branches 4.
occlude pulmonary artery branches
D. 1, 2, 4
25.A shift to the right in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
C. Improves oxygen release at the cellular level
26.Which statement is true concerning cystic fibrosis?
D. Defect results in overproduction of viscous mucus
27.Which of the following shows a correct sequence in acute respiratory distress syndrome?
D. increased alveolar-capillary permeability, causing decreased surfactant production
28.The most common cause of pneumonia in children is:
A. Streptococcus pneumonia
29.Children with cystic fibrosis demonstrate elevated levels of which of the following compounds, in both sweat and salivary gland secretions?
A. Sodium chloride
30.A patient with a pulmonary embolus could be described as having
A. Ventilation without perfusion
31.The normal PO2 and PCO2 of arterial blood are respectively
B. 80-100 mmHg, 35-45 mmHg
32.Administering high concentrations of oxygen to a person with chronic hypoxia can be harmful because:
C. high concentrations suppress the oxygen chemoreceptors which provide the main stimulus for ventilation
33.Given the following lung volumes: Tidal volume = 500 mL, Residual volume = 1000 mL, Inspiratory reserve = 2500 mL, Expiratory reserve = 1000 mL,
air space = 1000 mL The vital capacity would be:
A. 4000 mL
34.The pneumotaxic center
B. Inhibits the apneustic center
35.Treatment for asthma consists of bronchodilator therapy with theophylline and beta agonists. A common side effect of these agents is:
36.The most common cause of bronchiolitis in children is:
D. Respiratory syncytial virus
37.During one of the pathologic stages of pneumonia, the number of red blood cells in the exudate decreases and they are replaced by increasing numbers of
neutrophils which infiltrate the alveoli. This stage is referred to as:
B. Gray hepatization
38.Signs of respiratory distress and impending respiratory failure in the infant includes all of the following except:
B. Heightened level of consciousness
39.A congenital deformity in which the lower end of the sternum is attached to the thoracic spine by fibromuscular bands giving the lower sternal area a depressed appearance is called:
A. Pectus excavatum
40.Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathophysiological feature in which of the following diseases:
A) a. Silicosis
d. A and B
41.In head injury, vasodilation of blood vessels can promote more swelling and a resultant increase in intracranial pressure. The stimulus for vasodilation of
B) a. Hypoxiab.
d. A and B
42.All of the following are manifestations of croup except:
C. Expiratory stridor
43.Which of the following conditions would be associated with bilateral infiltrates on X-ray, respiratory distress, crackles upon auscultation, and abnormal blood gases?
44.Tim, age 4 years, aspirated a small piece of hot dog. Upon auscultation of his lungs, you would most likely expect decreased or absent breath sounds in which
of the following?
B. Over his right lung
45.Which of the following is true regarding the chloride shift?
B. It occurs when chloride ions replace bicarbonate ions within erythrocytes
46.Which of the following conditions could cause compression atelectasis?
A) a. Pleural effusion
d. A and B only
47.Which of the following is true regarding the occurrence of cor pulmonale and polycythemia?
B. The main stimulus for the development of these conditions is hypoxia
48.Which of the following is the most important factor in gas exchange?
D. Partial pressure of the gases involved
49.Which of the following compounds is present in the sweat and salivary secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis?
C. Sodium chloride
50.Emphysema differs from chronic bronchitis in which of the following ways?
A. emphysema obstruction results from destruction of alveolar walls and capillary beds
51.Which of the following is the volume of air that can be forcefully expired after expiration of a normal tidal volume?
B. Expiratory reserve volume
52.Which of the following are factors that can influence ventilation?
A) a. Proprioceptors in joints and muscles
c. Accumulation of CO2
d. Voluntary control from higher brain centers
e. All of the above are correct
53.Which of the following conditions can result from fractured ribs or sternum?
A. Flail chest
54.What is the term used to describe the increased affinity of CO2 for hemoglobin when O2 is dissociated from hemoglobin?
D. Haldane effect
55.Which of the following is associated with left tension pneumothorax?
D. Deviation of the mediastinum to the right
56.All of the following muscles would decrease the volume of the thorax EXCEPT?
57.Which of the following are normal arterial blood gases?
A. PO2 90 mmHg, PCO2 40 mmHg
58.The normal ventilation-perfusion ration is which of the following?
59.Oxygen is mostly transported in the blood in which of the following ways?
B. Bound to the heme portion of hemoglobin
60.Which of the following statements is true concerning the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
B. The curve shifts to the right when hypercapnia is present and an increase of C02.
61.Which of the following is accurate concerning the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?
C. increased alveolar-capillary permeability, which causes leakage of proteins and water into alveoli
62.All of the following are part of the pathophysiology of asthma EXCEPT?
C. Relaxation of smooth muscle that surrounds the airways
63.All of the following are part of the pathophysiology of chronic bronchitis EXCEPT?
C. Destruction of alveolar and capillary membranes
64.Which of the following percentages of FEV1.0 to FVC would be indicative of COPD?
65.Which of the following occurs immediately after the creation of an opening through the thorax into the pleural cavity?
B. air flows into the pleural cavity through the hole
66.Which of the following is true regarding quiet respiration?
D. The thorax and lungs passively recoil due to elaxation of the muscles of inspiration
67.Which stage of pneumonia is characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and an increase in the number of neutrophils?
C. Gray hepatization
68.Which of the following cells secrete surfactant?
B. Type II alveolar cells
69.A positive result from an intradermal injection of the tubercle bacillus is an example of which of the following types of hypersensitivity reaction?
A. Type IV
70.Unsuccessful resolution of empyema is associated with which of the following conditions?
71.Which of the following would you most commonly expect to find on an X-ray of an individual with pulmonary tuberculosis?
C. Ghon's complex
72.Why is administration of high concentrations of oxygen harmful to a person with chronic hypoxia?
A. because high concentrations suppress the oxygen chemoreceptors
73.Which of the following terms best describes the accumulation of purulent material in the pleural cavity?
74.Which of the following microorganisms is the most common cause of epiglottitis in children?
C. Hemophilus influenza
75.All of the following impair function of the mucociliary escalator system EXCEPT?
D. Humidified air
76.Which of the following is accurate concerning the diffusion of O2 from the capillary blood into the tissue cell blood?
A. The PO2 is less in the tissue cell than it is in arterial blood
77.Which of the following is not one of the four phases of the inflammatory response associated with pneumococcal pneumonia?
78.The oldest and most widespread of the pneumoconoises is which of the following?
79.Which of the following is/are true regarding the pneumotaxic center?
A) a. It inhibits inspiration
b. It inhibits the apneustic center
d. A and B only
80.In the person with COPD, which of the following best describes why pursed-lip breathing improves ventilation?
B) b. It increases small airway pressures during expiration as a means of preventing their collapse
c. It allows more time for gas exchange to occur
e. B and C only
81.Which of the following is the most common etiology of bronchiolitis in children?
B. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
82.Which of the following describes a chest wound in which the defect acts like a flap valve and permits the entrance of air during inspiration but fails to permit
its escape during expiration?