A small bony protrusion at the distal portion of the radius to which ligaments of the wrist are attached.
The inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite the thumb.
The eight irregularly shaped bones of the wrist.
The bones that form the hand.
The metacarpal bones
The small bones of the digits of the fingers and toes.
The joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bones; the thumb joint.
Acute or chronic inflammation of one or more joints, usually accompanied by pain and stiffness.
The attachment point where the lower extremities attach to the body. Contains a ring of bones where the sacrum is posterior and the coxal bones are on each side.
Name the three bones that are fused together to form the coxa.
The connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.
A hard bony and cartilaginous prominence found at the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint minimal motion.
The superior portion of the ilium.
The opening between the ischium and pubis that contains several important nerves and muscles.
The Obturator Foramen (ob-tu-ra-tor)
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three components join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
The long bone on the posterior surface of the lower leg.
The distal end of the tibia, which forms the medial side of the ankle joint.
Medial Malleolus (Ma-leo-lus)
The distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint.
Lateral Malleolus (Ma-leo-lus)
Bone that articulates the tibia and fibula to form the ankle.
Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint and is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will.
Muscle that consitutes the bulk of the GI tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity. Muscle over which a person has no conscious control.
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing.
The passage that leads from the cavities of the nose and mouth to the larynx.
The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.
The tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
The portion of the pharynx just above the larynx.
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach.
A thin, leaf shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.
The space between the vocal cords where air enters the trachea.
A method of preventing regurgitation of an anesthetized pt. during endotracheal intubation by applying pressure to the cricoid cartilage.
The Sellick Maneuver
The point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into each lung.
Fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveoli ducts.
The air sacs of the lungs in which gas exchange takes place.
A liquid protein substance that coats the alveoli in the lungs and helps keep the alveoli open.
The very thin membrane that lies between the alveolus and the capillary through which gas exchange occurs.
The two primary organs of breathing.
The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.
The potential space between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura.
The pleural membrane that lines the lungs.
The pleural membrane that lines the thoracic cavity.
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity.
The movement of gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What % of room air contains O2?
What % of the air that a person exhales contains O2?
A measurement of the amount of O2 in the blood.
Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PaO2)
A measurement of the amount of CO2 in the blood.
Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCO2)
A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of less than 7.35, and caused by accumulation of acids in the body from a respiratory cause.
A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of less than 7.35, and caused by accumulation of acids in the body from a metabolic cause.
A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of greater than 7.45, and caused by accumulation of bases in the body from a respiratory cause.
A pathologic condition characterized by a blood pH of greater than 7.45, and caused by accumulation of bases in the body from a metabolic cause.
The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Potential of Hydrogen (pH)
A "backup system" to control respiration; senses drops in the O2 level in the blood.
In normal breathing, the brain control respirations by measuring the levels of _____ in the blood.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
A substance that increases the concentration of H+ ions in a water solution.
A substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions in a water solution.
What is the normal pH level in the body?
Blood that is too basic.
Blood that is too acidic
A substance that can reversibly bind H+.
Fast-acting defenses for acid-base change, providing almost immediate protection against the H+ ion concentration of extracellular fluid.
The lower half of the brain stem, controls automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and BP.
The Medulla Oblongata
A portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
A portion of the medulla oblongata that is responsible for modulating breathing during speech.
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG)
The superior portion of the pons, helps shut off the DRG, resulting in shorter, faster respirations.
The Pneumotaxic Center
The Pontine Center
The inferior portion of the pons, stimulates the DRG, resulting in longer, slower respirations.
A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.
The movement of air between the lungs and the environment.
The process of gas exchange at a cellular level.
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath.
What is the average tidal volume for an adult?
The amount of air that can be inhaled a normal inhalation.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation.
Expiratory Reserve Volume
The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs maximum inspiration and expiration.
Any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange.
Normal respiratory rate for an adult.
Normal respiratory rate for children.
Normal respiratory rate for infants.
The use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest.
Slow, gasping respirations, sometimes seen in dying pt.
The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, O2, nutrients, CO2, and cellular waste throughout the body.
The portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs, the rest of the body.
The flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins, also called the lesser circulation.
A hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels.
The serous membranes that surround the heart.
The layer of the serous membrane that lies closely against the heart. Lines the outside of the heart.
A serous fluid that fills the space between the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium and helps to reduce friction.
The thin membrane lining the inside of the heart.
A membrane that separates the left and right atria.
A thick wall that separates the left and right ventricles.
One of the two upper chambers of the heart.
One of the two lower chambers of the heart.
Veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart.
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
A depression between the left and right atria that indicates where the foramen ovale had been located in the fetus.
An opening between the two atria that is present in the fetus but closes shortly birth.
The valves that separate the upper (atrium) and lower (ventricle) parts of the heart.
The heart valve that separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.
The valve in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.
The flaps the comprise the heart valves.
Specialized muscles that attach the ventricles to the cusps of the valves by muscular strands called chordae tendineae.
This bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
The valves that separate the ventricles from the arteries into which they pump.
The semilunar valve that regulates blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
The semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
Superior Vena Cava
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava
The principle artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
The heart sound caused by the sudden closer of the tricuspid and mitral (bicuspid) valves.
The heart sound caused by closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves.
A soft low pitched heart sound that occurs about one third of the way through diastole; associated abnormally increased filling pressures in the atria secondary to heart failure.
A medium pitched heart sound that occurs immediately S1 and represents either decreased stretching of the left ventricle or increased pressure in the atria.
An abnormal heart sound, heard as a "whooshing like" sound indicating turbulent blood flow within the heart.
An abnormal "whooshing like" sound indicating turbulant blood flow within a blood vessel.
Abnormal heart sounds that indicate abnormal cardiac valve function.
A group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue.
Cardiac Conduction System
The normal site of origin of eletrical impulses; the hearts natural pacemaker.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
The site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
Related to the control of the heart's rate of contraction.
Related to the control of the heart's electrical conduction rate.
Related to the strenght of the heart's contraction.
Sensors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis.
Sensors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis.
The number of heart beats during a specific time.
The strength of heart muscle contractions.
_____ stimulation slows the heart rate, primarily affecting the AV node.
_____ stimulation causes alpha and beta effects.
_____ receptors are located in the brain and blood vessels and results in vasoconstriction.
_____ receptors are located in the heart and lungs and results in inotropic, dromotropic, chronotropic states.
The repetitive pumping process that begins the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just prior to the beginning of the next contraction.
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
Millimeters of Mercury
The pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood.
The volume of blood pumped forward each ventricular contraction.
The amount of air moved in and out of the lung in one minute.
What is the average minute volume for an adult?
The amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in one minute.
The theroy that the force of the heart beat is determined primarily by the length of the fibers constituting it muscular wall. An increase in diastolic filling equals an increase in the force of the heartbeat.
The portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole.
The volume of blood returned to the heart.
The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
The blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart.
The smallest branches of arteries.
The smallest branches of veins.
The tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit gas exhange.
Name the three layers of a blood vessel.
Tunica Intima - Inner
Tunica Media - Middle
Tunica Adventitia - Outer
Arteries that arise from the aorta shortly it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart O2 and nutrients.
The point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries.
The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
The proximal part of the main artery of the arm, which supplies the brain, neck, anterior chest wall, and shoulder.
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
The princple artery of the thigh.
A continuation of the femoral artery at the knee.
The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
Dorsalis Pedis Artery
The artery just behind the medial malleolus, supplies blood to the foot.
Posterior Tibial Artery
The two main veins that drain the head and neck.
Spaces between the membranes surrounding the brain that are the primary means of venous drainage from the brain.
Proximal of the main vein of the arm, it unites the internal jugular vein.
Name the two major veins of the arm.
Name the vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic veins and drains into the subclavian vein.
A specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the stomach, intestines, and spleen.
Hepatic Portal System
The veins into which blood empties liver cells in the sinusoids of the liver extract netrients, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs.
The largest vein in the body, it drains into the leg, thigh, and dorsum of the foot.
A continuation of the saphenous vein that drains into the iliac vein.
The vein that forms when the anterior and posterior tibial veins unite at the knee.
The fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consist of plasma nd formed elements or cells, such as RBC, WBC and platelets.
What is the average about of blood in the body?
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of exceretion.
Cells that carry O2 to the body's tissues.
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
A iron-containing pigment found in RBC, carries 97% of O2.
The process by which RBC are made.
A waste product of RBC destruction that undergoes further metabolism in the liver.
Substances on the surface of RBC that are recognized by the immune system.
Proteins within the plasma that react antigens.
Blood cells that have a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection.
White Blood Cells (WBC)
A process whereby WBC leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most.