ANTH 101 CH 12 and 15

  1. Religion
    belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces
  2. Reese: Religion
    bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship
  3. Turner: Religion
    Communitas (intense community spirit)
  4. Durkheim: Rligion
    religious effervesence (powerful emotional feelings)
  5. Bronislaw Malinowski: Religion
    "___ is born out of the real tragedies of human life."
  6. Bronislaw Malinowski: Magic
    ___ is used to establish control.
  7. Cultural Traits

    Biological and Physiological
    Bronislaw Malinowski's functionalist school of thought as it relates to religion:

    ___ ___ exist due to their ability to fulfill ___ and ___ needs.
  8. Communitas
    Intense feeling of social solidarity
  9. Animism
    belief in souls or doubles that derives from the first attempt to explain dreams and the like phenomena

    Latin: soul
  10. Mana
    belief in immanent supernatural domain or life force, potentially subject to human manipulation (Star Wars - the Force)
  11. Mana
    impersonal sacred force (Melanesia/Polynesia)
  12. Taboo
    prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions, sacred and forbidden
  13. Magic
    using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims

    - associated with animism, mana, polytheism, monotheism 
  14. Imitative / Contagious
    Magic can be ___ (as with voodoo dolls) or ___ (accomplished through contact).
  15. diverse
    Magic can be found in cultures with ___ religious beliefs.
  16. Melanesia mana
    ___ ___ is defined as a sacred, impersonal force (like Western concept of "luck")
  17. Polynesian mana / Taboo
    ___ ___ and related concept of ___ are related to the more hierarchial nature of Polynesian society.
  18. Ritual
    formal (stylized), repetitive, stereotyped behavior, based on a liturgical order
  19. Rituals
    ___ may not relieve anxiety, but create additional anxiety and stress for the individual
  20. Rituals and Stress
    Build up stress --->

    Reduce stress after Completion --->

    Enhance solidarity among participants/believers/the community
  21. Trobriand Islanders
    ___ ___ practice magic to guard against uncontrolable hazards when sailing.

    Creating an illusion of magical control when real control is not present.
  22. Liturgical Order
    sequences of words and actions invented prior to the current performance of the ritual in which they occur
  23. Rites of Passage
    a set of actions marking transitions between stages in life
  24. Separation
    withdrawl from a group and moving from one place to another
  25. Incorporation
    participant re-enters society with a new status, having
  26. Liminality
    the in-between phase of a passage rite

    a period during which the participant has left one place but has not yet entered the next
  27. Liminality
    ___, a basic part of rites of passage, involves a temporary suspension and reversal of social distinctions
  28. Cosmology
    a system, often religious, for imagining and understanding the universe
  29. Totemism
    form of cosmology where nature is used as a model for society

    symbol that represents unity (sports team logos)
  30. totemic
    In ___ societies, each descent group has an animal, plant, or geographical feature from which they claim descent.
  31. Leveling Mechanism
    custom that brings standouts back in line with community norms - a form of social control to reduce stratification
  32. Shaman
    a part-time magico-religious practitioner
  33. Communal Religions
    based on community rituals (i.e. harvest ceremonies, passage rites)
  34. Polytheism
    belief in multiple gods
  35. decline
    According to Tyler:

    Religion would ___ as science came to offer better explainations for things.
  36. Olympian Religions
    state religions with professional priesthoods
  37. Monotheism
    belif in a single, all-powerful deity
  38. Fundamentalists
    ___ seek to rescue religion from absorption into the modern
  39. Fundamentalists
    ___ assert an identity seperate from that of the larger religious group
  40. Syncretism
    cultural/religious mixes, that emerge when 2 or more cultural traditions come into contact
  41. Ahimsa
    Hindu doctrine of nonviolence forbids killing animals
  42. Ahisma
    Western economic development experts often use the ___ as an example of how religion can stand in the way of development. 
  43. Religious freedom as a human right
    Examples of religious freedom as a ___ ___:

    • - Tibetan Buddhist refugees
    • - Muslims in post 9/11 United States
  44. Revitalization Movements
    seek to bring about positive change by reconstructing parts of religion threatened by outside forces
  45. Cargo Cults
    postcolonial, acculturative religious movements in Melanesia
  46. Antimodernism
    rejecting the modern for a presumed earlier, purer, better way
  47. Fundamentalism
    advocating strict fidelity to a religion's presumed founding principle
  48. Shamans/Specialists

    Burials and painted figures on walls of European caves may represent ___ and early religious ___; suggests religious ___.
  49. Tylor
    According to ___, religion evolved through stages.
  50. No one knows for sure ... we can only speculate.
    When did religion originate?
  51. Religious Concepts
    ___ ___ and norms seem to excite the human mind and linger in memory.

    ___ ___ work because they are what people will transmit.
  52. supernatural
    ___ concepts are highly salient because they combine specific features that violate expectations
  53. explicit violations

    transmission advantages
    ___ ___ (ie. ghosts, gods, spirits) are attention grabbing/ cognitively attractive, leading to ___ ___.
  54. Kabba
    Symbolizes the worship of the One God - the god of Abraham

    originally built by Adam and rebuilt by Abraham after the Great Flood
  55. Hajj
    Sacred pilgrimage / quest for salvation
  56. custodian
    King of Isreal is referred to as the ___ of the 2 Holy Mosques
  57. State of Ihram
    pure frame of mind: Patience, Courtesy, and Respect

    - Grooming, Arguing, and Sex are forbidden
  58. State of Ihram
    men are required to change into 2 pieces of cloth - symbolizes unity and puts the "soul on center stage."
  59. Journey to Arafat
    greatest day of the Hajj - where Adam met Eve after their separation
  60. The Standing at Arafat
    the realm of forgiveness
  61. the Jamarat
    Ceremonial "Stoning of Satan" at the three pillars
  62. shamanic, communal, olympian, monotheistic
    4 types of religion
  63. the 4 Vedas
    core texts of Hinduism
  64. Hinduism
    • - "unity in diversity"
    • - sacred sites range from a pile of stones to temples
    • - rich polytheism
    • - incorporates diversity of ways to practice the religion
  65. Buddhism
    • - Started in North India
    • - NO accepted single text
    • - Goal: achieve Nirvana
    • - Tradition: monasticism
  66. Buddhism
    ___ 1st arose as a protest against social inequality of Hinduism
  67. Judaism
    • - Origin: 500 BCE
    • - Theme: exile and return
    • - Text: Torah
    • - Monotheistic
    • - Contemporary varieties from conservative to reform
  68. Jerusalem / Islam
    ___ is the holiest city of Judaism, and also the 3rd holiest city of ___ and holy to many Christians as well.
  69. Kotel/ Jewish
    The ___, or Western Wall, in Jerusalem is a pilgrimage site sacred to ___ people.
  70. Christianity
    largest of the World Religions
  71. Islam
    • - Youngest of the World Religions
    • - 2nd largest world religion
    • - local variations in ritual practices
  72. Sunni / Shi'a
    ___ and ___ are the two major branches of Islam
  73. Muhammad
    Islam is based on the teachings of ___
  74. Casablanca, Morocco / 25k
    The largest mosque in the world is in ___, ___.  It has space for ___ worshippers
  75. Baha'i
    Religious movement originating in Iran in the 19th century, spiritual unity, syncretism, offshoot Islam

    Founder: Baha'ulla'h
  76. Indigenous People
    groups who have a longstanding connection with their home territory that predates colonial or outside societies that prevail in their territory
  77. Nunavut Province, Canada
    Example of succesful reclaiming of indigenous people's territory
  78. Transnational Migration
    migration where one regularly moves back and forth between 2 or more countries
  79. International Migration
    migration across counrty boundaries
  80. Internal Migration
    migration within the country boundaries
  81. 3 weeks
    We lose One language every x# of ___
  82. Migration
    The history of our species is one of ___ - it made us
  83. Buddhism
    Indigenous to Japan, deities of natural forces, veneration of Emperor, descendant of sun goddess
  84. Taoism
    Chinese mystical philosophy, founded by Lao-tzu 6th century BC
  85. Judaism
    Indian religion that emphasizes complete non-violence and asceticism, 6th century BC
  86. Zoroastrianism
    Persian religion 6th century BC

    Prophet: supreme god, Ahura Mazda
  87. Revitalization Movements
    social moments that occur in times of change/crisis/unrest
  88. Reformation
    new offshoot criticizing dominant religious ideology
  89. maintain social order (Ireland/Quebec before the end of the 60s)
    Religion as a stablizing force
  90. Religious Pluralism
    • Mali (shrines)
    • Afghanistan (Buddha)

    ... Religious Intolerance ...
  91. Religious Syncretism
    blended religious ideas
  92. Anthropological view on world religion
    concerned with:

    what the impact of a world religion in a new, local context

    how local cultures reshape world religions
  93. scientology
    ___ is considered a sect in Europe, but a religion in the USA
  94. world religions
    Typically text-based with many followers (crosses country borders)
  95. World
    ___ religions are much more organized with strong institutions (social stratification)
  96. permanent
    Religious specialists:  the more complex a society, the more ___ the specialist
  97. supernaturality
    A religion is NOT a religion without a ___
  98. Greenhouse Effect
    warming from trapped atmospheric gases
  99. Climate Change
    global warming plus changing sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystem effects
  100. Ethnoecology
    a culture's set of environmental practices and perceptions
  101. Ecological Anthropology
    study of cultural adaptations to environments
  102. Westernization
    the acculturative influence of Western expansion on local cultures worldwide
  103. Cultural Imperialism
    spread of one (dominant) culture at the expense of others
  104. Indigenized
    modified to fit the local culture
  105. Diaspora
    offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
  106. Postmodernity
    describes our time and situation:  time of questioning of established canons, identities, and standards
  107. Postmodern
    breakdown of established canons, categories, distinctions, and boundaries
  108. Postmodernism
    style and movement in architecture after modernism
  109. Essentialism
    viewing identities that have developed historically as innate and unchanging
Card Set
ANTH 101 CH 12 and 15
religion and global issues