what is sex vs gender
gender= socially constructed
how many pairs of chromosomes does each human cell have?
which chromosomes determine primary sex determination?
what is the phenomena by which males and females display basic differences in size and and shape?
In general males...?
In general females?
Males: larger with more developed musculature
females: have anatomical traits related to childbirth esp. in pelvis
How much earlier does adolescent growth spurt occur in girls?
When do major differences emerge?
Where are differences in pattern and timing of growth most apparent?
pelvis and skull
In terms of age influence in trait expression, when are triats fully i.e skeltal growth completed?
mid to late 20's (esp for males)
Young ___ can look more ____ esp in skull
Young males can look more feminine esp. in skull
Skulls of post-_____ females can have a more _____ appearence due to lack of _____/______ ofsetting natural levels of testosterone
Skulls of post-menopausal females can have more masculine apprerearence due to lack of estrogen/progresterone offsetting natural levels of testosterone
When examining whole skeleton, sex acccurately estimated 90-100% of cases
just pelvis - ___%
just skill ____%
just long bones ____%
just long bones - 80%
Males = large and rugged
Females = small and gracile
Males -high and vertical
- Females- low and flat
Subpubic angle in pelvis
v-shaped = m/f?
u-shaped = m/f
V shaped = male
U Shaped = female (female more curvy UUUU)
Males -Broad and square
Females -narrow and rectangular
Circular/elliptical = m/f
heart shaped = m/f
male (heart shaped)
Obturator foramen in pelvis
Males - large and ovoid
- females - small and triangular
Greater sciatic notch
- Females : wide greater sciatic notch,
- well -developed preauricular sulcus
- Males : Narrow greater sciatic notch
- rare preauricular sulcus
Shape of sacrum
Male - long and narrow
Female - short and broad
What are the three phenice traits?
- Ventral arc
- Males = slight/absent
- Females- strong
- Subpubic concavity
- Male - convex
- Female - concave
- Ichiopubic ramus ridge
- Male - area broad and flat
- Female- narrow, crest-like ridge
What is Washburn's ischum pubic index? (what does it quantify?)
what is the equation?
Quantifies longer, more stretched aspect of pubic bone in females when compared to males
- (PUBIC LENGTH / ISCHIUM LENGTH ) x 100
- <84 = male
- >94 = female
- --> this is only 68% accurate but 83-91% accurate if ancestry known
Shulter-Ellis et als DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION?
Anthroscopic traits of the skull?
Size - male vs female
Chin - Male vs female
- m- large and rugged
- f- small and smooth
Male - large and projecting
Female - small, non projecting
- Male - slanted
- Female - high, rounded
- Male - rounded
- female - sharp
- Male - large
- Female - small non
- Male - rugged, may have hook
- Female - smooth, hook rare
What was Walkers logistic discriminant functions, what did it predict?
predicted sex of skulls via trait scores
What did Giles and Elliots discriminant function measure i.e what did they use??
what was the accuracy an among what group of people?
mastoid length, bizygomatic width, max.length, max breadth of skull
85.5% accuracy for black and white population
Juvenile sexing is very difficult, When are differences most visibly seen?
there are substle differences during 5th month inutero due to?
at 8 weeks in utero?
Foetuses, infant and young children < 5 yrs (the younger the better)
differences in testosterone levels.
testosterone levels in male foestus rise and remain high until birth after which levels falla dn remain low until puberty
What is schutkowski's method for juvenile sexing based on?
degree of accuracy?
morphological features of the pelvis and mandible
What are 3 mandibular traits in juveniles to look for?
- -Protrusion of chin - male promominant females not
- -shape of anterior dental arcade- males wide, females rounded contour
- -eversion of gonion males everted, females not
Pelvis traits in juveniles
angles of sciatic notch in males vs females?
Male ~ 90 degrees
females > 90 degrees
Pelvis traits in juveniles
arch criterion, males vs females
Males - extension of vertical side of sciatic notch leads into lateral rim of auricular surface
females - arch formed by drawing extension from vertical side of sciatic notch, crosses auricular surface
depth of sciatic notch in females vs males (juveniles)
males - deep
females - shallow
curvature of iliac crest in juveniles
- males vs females
males - viewed from - S shape
Females viewed from top - faint S shape
What post cranial bone can be measured to determine sex? (3)
what part of this bone is measured?
Fermur, Clavicle, scapula
- -Measuring vertical head diameter
- -Measuring bicondylar width