
The most important attribute is that our measure be ___.
Sensitive

A sensitive measure has the ability to detect ___ among participants on a given variables.
differences

Usually, the more valid and reliable the measure, the more ___ the measure.
sensitive

a short version of a study, run on just a few participants, using just the scale of interest for assessment.
pilot test

A pilot test is essential when using a ___
newly created measure

A pilot test is unnecessary if the scale being used has been ___.
wellestablished

a measurement scale that does not include values that are below a certain level.
Floor Effect

a measurement scale that does not include values that are above a certain level
ceiling effect

least informative scale where numbers are used in place of names and have no meaningful order
Nominal Scale

Scale where "bigger" means "more." Numbers can be placed in a meaningful order
Ordinal Scale

scale where differences between numbers is equal, numbers are placed in a meaningful order, and there is equal distances between scale numbers
Interval Scale

scale that can be used to compare amounts of a construct
numbers are placed in a meaningful order
equal distances between scale numbers
there is an absolute zero on this scale
Ratio Scale

Goal of ___ ___ is to test hypotheses and answer questions.
Descriptive Research

Descriptive Research cannot test ___  ___ hypotheses.
causeeffect

Research using descriptive methods is called ___ ___.
correlational research

Descriptive research is ___ carried out.
easily

The overall goal of ___ ___ is to record accurate measurements from a representative sample.
descriptive research

Data that has already been collected (without a specific experiment in mind)
Archival data

Descriptive research may draw from ___ ___.
archival data

Archival data can be converted into a form of data that can be meaningfully, objectively analyzed
accomplished using ___ ___
content analysis

Accomplished by using ___ ___.
Define coding categories
Provide examples of behavior categories
Train raters to identify behavior categories
Content Analysis

accomplished by unobtrusively observing participants
 participants are unaware of being observed
Naturalistic Observation

occurs when the researcher directly interacts with the participants
 researcher becomes "one of them"
Participant Observation

relationship where as the amount of one variable increases so does the other
Positive Relationship

relationship where as the amount of one variable decreases so does the other
Negative Relationship

relationship where the variables do not vary in the same direction
Nonlinear Relationship

Summarize the relationship between variables using a ___ ___
Correlation Coefficient

___ ___ tells the direction (positive/negative) and strength (magnitude) of a relationship.
Pearson r

Pearson r
ranges from 1 (very ___) to 0 (very ___) to +1 (very ___)
Strong, Weak, Strong

a "habit" or pattern of responding with a certain, set answer
response set

type of bias that is a serious threat to a survey design's EXTERNAL validity
 where people don't respond to a survey
Nonresponse Bias

___ ___ questionnaires are completed in the absence of a researcher
selfadministered

___ ___ questionnaires are completed in the presence of a researcher
investigatoradministered

scales that are carefully developed over years
psychological test

questionnaire where respondents choose between (usually) 2 answers (i.e. T/F, Male/Female or Y/N)
FixedAlternative questions

Respondents choose from a scale
LikertType questions

sampling where researchers carefully match their sample to their population
proportionate stratefied random sampling

sampling where each person has an equal chance of being selected
random sampling

