1. Ragged red fibres seen on muscle biopsy. What metabolic process if affected?
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  2. Enlarged ovary and decreased adnexal flow. Abdominal pain radiating to the back.
    • Ovarian torsion
    • Decrease of blood flow in the suspensory ligament
  3. What diet would decrease the patient's risk for Type II DM if he's overweight
    • Low calorie
    • (low carb if he is Type II DM already)
  4. Administration of glucagon doesn't correct the fasting hypoglycemia, but Epi does. Where does the defect lie?
    • Glucagon receptor
    • (AC, cAMP, and PKA are all functional because Epi still works)
  5. Affects of gemfibrozil on myostatin to cause rhabdomyolysis
    Inhibits cytP450 metabolism
  6. Increased pulse, BP and RR. Pupillary dilation and diapohresis. Affect is agitated and thought process confused. Drug abuse?
  7. Child with sx of rheumatic fever, and can hear a frictional rub. Great risk for death at this time?
    • Myocarditis
    • (later deaths involve the valves)
  8. Whic drug to treat worms increases the permeability of the cell membrane to Ca+2
  9. Which drug to treat worms inhibits the polymerization of microtubules?
  10. Sexual dysfunction and patient has jaundice and spider angiomata. What is decreased to cause patient's ED?
    • Testosterone
    • (increased activity of aromatase to make more estrogen; hence, testosterone decreases)
  11. Tumor that stains positive for chromogranin, NSE, and synaptophysin and found at the bifurcation of the carotid artery
    • Paragangliomas
    • (carcinoid tumors are also neuroendocrine)
  12. Patient overdoses on insulin and goes low. Then, his blood sugar rises. Mechanism?
    Activation of hepatic adenyl cyclase and PKA (due to SNS stimulation and glucagon if exogenous)
  13. Treatment of cephalexin
    • Cephalosporin: acts like PG
    • 1. inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • 2. cross-linking of transpeptidase
  14. Leg is in a cast for about 6 months. What happens to the calf muscle?
    Muscle atrophy - broken down to proteins which are then shunted towards urea and gluconeogenesis
  15. When conduction velocity is decreased for nerves, what channel is affected
    Voltage-gated Na+ channels
  16. Woman presents with infertility issues, but everything is normal (hormone levels, exams, menses.) What drug to give?
  17. Chronic colonization of Pseudomonas in a CF patient
    Biofilm production in the lower respiratory tract
  18. HSV-2 establishes a latent infection in what cells?
    Sacral ganglia (sensory neurons in the sensory ganglia)
  19. Uterus needs to be separated from all pelvic structures. Structure that should be incised attaches to the cervix and runs posteriorly
    Uterosacral ligament
  20. Mechanism of hypercalcemia associated with multiple myeloma
    Activation of IL-1/TNF-a
  21. Mechanism of hypercalcemia associated with sarcoidosis
    Vitamin D upregulation
  22. Newborn presents with sucking frantically and crying, and over-reacting to stimuli with a startled response. Sx resolve in 2-3 weeks. Drug used in pregnancy?
    Opiods withdrawal sx
  23. Most common symptoms of a AVM
    Headaches and epilepsy
  24. Esophageal arteries are branches off the?
    • Aorta
    • Image Upload 1
  25. Orlistat
    • weight loss drug
    • prevents fat absorption from the diet
    • a/e = steatorrhea
  26. Patient has a father who dies of alcoholism. Initially, gets angry at such patients and then learns methods of dealing with them. Using what defense mechanism?
    Mature: suppression = voluntarily chosen to forget about it
  27. Function of ANP on RAAS
    • Vasodilation of afferent and vasoconstriction of the efferent (increases GFR)
    • Inhibits RAAS (renin)
  28. Function of neuraminidase inhibitors
    Blocks the release of virus after packaging and assembly
  29. Acute intermittent porphyria - mode of inheritance
  30. Hypochondriasis vs. somatoform disorder
    Former: disproportionate fear of a serious disease
  31. What is a difference between pulmonary circulation vs. bronchial circulation?
    • Bronchial a come from aorta, supply lungs and then join the pulmonary veins to enter the LA (slight deO2 blood with O2 blood)
    • Pulmonary veins have greater o2 content = increased % of CO than the bronchial circulation
  32. Why do you get respiratory acidosis with myasthenia gravis?
    • Muscle weakness as the day progresses, weakness of the diaphragm as well.
    • Therefore, difficulty with breathing: increased Co2 and decreased O2. 
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