Module 4

  1. Lysosomes are the cells
    recycling bin
  2. Lysosomes are formed from?
    trans face of Golgi complex
  3. Often the entire cell is marked for destruction.  In this case, the cell dumps itself into the recycling bin; the entire cell's contents are fused with
    lysosomes, the cell dies, and the parts are recycled.
  4. In order to more efficiently break down materials, the pH of the lysosome is set at
    5.0 (over 100 times more acidic than the cytosol)
  5. Proton pump moves H+ ions against their concentration gradient using
    ATP as energy source
  6. Enzymes which work best at acid pH are inside?
    Acid hydrolases
  7. Peroxisomes are found in the
    liver and kidney, where they help carry out the detoxification functions of these organs.
  8. B-oxidation reaction is used to
    break down fats to obtain energy.
  9. Peroxisomes have unique properties
    They can replicate themselves.

    They make hydrogen peroxide, which is itself toxic and needs to be inactivated by catalase and other enzymes.
  10. Misfolded or malformed proteins are processed in an organelle called the
  11. What drug targets cancer cell proteasome?
    Bortezomib- used to treat multiple myeloma (a type of blood cell cancer)
  12. Blocking proteasomes causes these cancer cells to
    undergo a programmed cell death
  13. Ubiquitin binds to "bad" protein, then
    leads the protein to the proteasome which acts like a paper shredder to degrade protein.
  14. Mitochondria is the site
    of energy production for cells.
  15. In cells, the mitochondrion makes
  16. Mitochondria have
    double walls- proton pumped into the space between inner and outer membranes, then protons are allowed to run down their concentration gradient and this produces ATP.

    their own DNA- can only be inherited from the mother.
Card Set
Module 4