1. Hemolytic anemia
    -ocular signs
    • RBC destruction (meds, infections, autoimmune, inherited)
    • -ie. sickle cell, thalassemia
    • -hemorrhage, roth spots, cotton-wool spots, hard exudates, dilated tortuous veins, exacerbation of DR
  2. Sickle cell anemia
    • -premature RBC destruction
    • -affects blacks
    • -AR inheritance
    • -abnormal Hb gene -> rod shaped cells -> stuck in small blood vessels -> pain
    • -retinopathy: hemorrhages, vascular occulsions, black sunbursts, vessel shunting, neovascularization, traction retinal detachment
  3. Treatment for this disease includes bone marrow transplant, analgesics, O2 sopplementation, antibiotics, vitamins
    • Sickle cell disease
    • -bone marrow-for RBCs
    • -analgesics
    • -O2-for lack of O2 delivery
    • -antibiotics to fight infections
    • -vitamins for RBC production
  4. Thalassemia
    -genetic defect affecting aa for Hb
  5. Obstructive pulmonary disease
    • -due to obstructed airway lumen or hereditary/environmental cause (ie. smoker)
    • -ie. Asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis
  6. Asthma
    • -chronic reversible inflammatory airway obstruction (bronchial narrows, increased mucus)
    • -more children affected
    • -often positive fam history of asthma
    • -lots of triggers ie. allergens, irritants
    • -Tx: education, environmental control, Ventolin (B2 agonist)
  7. Chornic obstructice pulmonary disease
    • -COPD
    • -maint tyeps: emphysema, chronic bronchitis
    • -environmental factors (ie. smoker)
  8. Emphysema
    • -progressive irrevesible airway obstruction
    • -alveoli walls damaged (lost elasticity, mucus obstruction, over-inflated)
    • -Pink Puffer (pink skin, barrel chest)
    • -Hereditary and evnironemental
  9. Chronic bronchitis
    • -chornic inflammatory partially reversible obstruction
    • -chronic cough
    • -inflammation and swelling of bronchial cell lining (Blue bloater -cyanosis)
    • -obesity common
    • -Tx: cease smoking, flu vaccine, B2 agonists
  10. Cystic fibrosis
    • -pancreatic cytsts + tissue fibrosis
    • -AR inheritance (CF gene mutation -> affects mov't of salt in and out of cells, mucus is thin)
    • -usually caucasian
    • -affects growth, breathing, digestion, reproduction, fatal (life expectancy is 32 yrs)
    • -GI problems (pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis), sinus problems, v. salty sweat, reduced fertility, lung inflammation -> pneumonia (predominant cause of death)
    • -Tx: No cure, improve nutrition, physiotherapy for chest, treat diabetes, organ transplant
  11. Restrictive pulmonary disease
    • -chonic inability to inhale (altered lunch pleura, chest wall, or musculature)
    • -two main types: instrinc lung disease (sarcoidosis, asbestosis), extrinsic lung disorder (Guillain-Barre syndrome)
  12. Sarcoidosis
    • -restrictive lunch disease due to granulomatous nests of cells in tissue
    • -affects Blacks more
    • -lungs, non-tender PAN, skin (erythema nodosum, lupus pernio), eyes (vasculitis, optic neuropathy)
    • -
  13. Most common ocular diseases assocaited with tobacco use?
    ARMD and cataract
  14. Acne rosacea
    • -chronic skin condition
    • -affects women, esp caucasians
    • -erythema of face, telangiectasia, sebaceous gland hypertrophy (check meibomian glands!), ocular rosacea, rhinophyma
    • -meibomian gland dysfunction, telangiectatsis, chalazia, punctate keratopahty, infiltrates, conj, episcler, scler, uveitis
  15. Mx of ocular rosacea
    • -lid hygiene
    • -art tears
    • -oral antibiotics (doxycyline)
  16. Px with seborrheic dermatitis is prone to what ocular diseases?
    • -conjunctivitis
    • -blepharitis
    • -keratitis
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