1. argument
    • a connected series of sentences, statements or premises that are intended to give reasons of some kind for a conclusion
    • arguments aim to provide justificaton
    • aim to convince that something is true
  2. pratical/progmatic reason
    • includes bribes,threats, or emotional reasons to believe a claim
    • not intellectual
    • ie. They'll burn me at stake if I don't believe
  3. Intellectual reasoning
    • provides a justified belief
    • also known as cosmological arg.
  4. explanations
    • tells us why something happened
    • reduce suprise
    • answers ques.
    • are never complete
  5. Premise (reason) markers
    • since
    • because
    • for
    • as
    • given
    • ¬†infalliable guide
  6. Conclusion markers
    • Therefore
    • hence
    • thus
    • then
    • it follows
    • falliable guide
  7. validity
    • an arg. can be valid if & only if it is not possible that all the premises be true and its conclusion false
    • arguments can be true even if it's premises be false
  8. Modus Ponus
    • Valid
    • 1.P -> Q
    • 2. P
    • 3. Therefore, Q
  9. Affirming the Consequent
    • Invalid
    • 1. P->Q
    • 2.Q
    • 3. Therefore, P
  10. Modus Tollens
    • Valid Arg w a conditional premise
    • 1. P ->Q
    • 2. Not Q
    • 3. Therefore, Not P
  11. Denying the Antecedant
    • Invalid arg w/ conditional premise
    • 1. P ->Q
    • 2. Not P
    • 3. Therefore, NOT Q
  12. soundness
    • an arg. is sound only if it's valid & it's premises are true
    • important because a sound arg. must be valid
    • only deductive arg. are sound
  13. Vagueness
    • we can't associate a precise meaning w/ the expression
    • ie. the prostitute can appeal to the Pope
  14. paradoxes
    • arg. in which apparently good reasoning takes us from apparently true premises to an apparently false conclusion.
    • ie "This sentence is false": If the sentence is true it must be false, if its false it must be true
  15. sorities (heaps)
    paradox involves 1. vague preidicate (bald) 2. an obviously true claim (Obama is not bald) 3. An incremental diff to the true claim (If Obama loses one hair, he won't be bald) leading to 4. An obviously false claim (If Obama lose all but one hair he wont be bald.)
  16. Slippery Slope
    aim to show that there is no geniuine diff. btwn cases on a continium so everything has the property in question
  17. conceptual slippery slope
    • there is no reason to distinguish btwn. diff. kinds of things.
    • ie: taxes on food are bad & we use cars to get food so we should fight taxes on luxuary cars.
  18. fairness slippery slope
    • problem of distinguishin diff. kinds of cases that might recieve same diff. treatment
    • ie. abortion is wrong vs. abortion to save a life of preggo women
  19. casual slippery slope
    • one event would lead to a undesirable event thus the 1st event is indesirable
    • ie. if you have a kid, it will die one day so "Don't have kids, you are killing them"
  20. reverse casual slippery
    • this undesirable event will lead to a good event
    • ie. getting fired
  21. ambiguity
    • it's unclear which meaning of a word is associated w/ the expression
    • ie: fram appeal
  22. semantic ambiguity
    ambiguity of an individual term or word "Obama smokes"
  23. syntantic ambiguity
    • ambiguity of a phrase or sentence
    • ie: time for football & meatball stew
  24. fallacy of equivication
    • when an arg. uses the same expression in diff. senses in diff. parts
    • ie.1.The polar bears are disappearing 2.if the polar bear are disappearing we should chase after them. 3. Therefore, we should save the polar bears by chasing them
    • distinguish all possible meanings & restate
    • determine if any cases are true
  25. lexical definition
    • dictionary definitions
    • ex: car-automobile
  26. stipulative definitions
    • definition stipulated for the purpose of an arg or discussion
    • ie. "worst cook in the world" =my father
  27. ostensive definition
    • def. that are defined by ostending (pointing towards) something
    • ie THAT is a chair
  28. Fallicies
  29. relevance
    • good arg are relevant to the truth of their conclusions
    • BAD arg are NOT relevant
    • ie. I been thinking about buying a donkey so you should take hang gliding lessons
  30. ad hominem
    arg. directed against the person who makes the claim rather than the argument itself
  31. deniers
    • ad hominem that deny theh truth of the claim of argument
    • ie. bob's a redhead so whatever he says is false
  32. silencers
    • adhominem deny the right of persons to speak
    • ie.you all are men so why should you speak on abortion
  33. dismissers
    • adhominems dismiss the speaker as unreliable or untrustworthy
    • ie.¬† shes a liar so we can't trust her
  34. genetic fallacy
    • dismiss an idea on the basis of it's origin
    • ie. pythagoreans thought it was immortal to eat bens so discredit
  35. appeals to authority
    • take an auth. w/ respect to to a certain subj. & treat it as authority on another subject.
    • ie Obama as auth. of Rennaisance paintings
  36. appeal to tradition
    • use tradition as a reason to justify a claim
    • ie. Spanish bullfighting is trad. so it should not be outlawed
  37. ad populum fallacy
    • when the fact that a claim is true is widely accepted determines whether it is true or not
    • popular opinion
    • ie. gasoline taste poorly
  38. ad misercordium fallacy (pity)
    • draws on emotions to prove a claim
    • someones or somthings poor state
    • ie MJ is dead so we shouldn't accuse him of rape
  39. appeal to fear
    • draws our focus to possible & undesirable outcomes & argue that we should take a course of action based on fear
    • ie. flu ->hazmat suits
  40. circular reasoning (distort the structure of the arg.)
    • if & only if one of the premises that is used directly or indirectly to support a conclusion equiv. to the conclusion itself
    • ie. no honest person would sell organs on the black market
    • therfore, only evil ppl sell sell organs on the black market
  41. begging the question (distort the structure of the arg)
    • when reasons or rationale for the premises are just one that accepts the conclusion
    • no independent reasons
    • ie. murder is wrong, euthanasia is murder, therefore euthanasia is wrong
  42. self sealers
    distort the structure
    • arg. or positions constructed such that no evidence can refute them
    • ie astrology.
Card Set
fallacies & arguments