BIO FINAL: pt. 4

  1. whenever predation occurs _____ occurs
    a transfer in nutrients
  2. food chain:
    • 1. predators
    • 2. herbivore
    • 3. primary carnivore
    • 4. secondary carnivore
    • 5. tertiary carnivore
  3. food web
    • describes roles of predation and competition for food
    • multiple species within a trophic level
    • describes the flow of energy
  4. remove producer fom food web=
    ecosystem will collapse
  5. remove top predator from food web=
    • pop. of secondary carnivores will increase
    • pop. of primary carnivores will decrease and so on
  6. energy input
    producers and consumers
  7. energy output
    cellular respiration (metabolism, heat) or feces for animals
  8. balance output
    determines available energy
  9. plants use _______ to produce new material, which is ______
    • photosynthesis
    • respiration
  10. animals use _____ to absorb materials and produce ____
    • consumption
    • feces
  11. implications of energy transfer
    • 1. efficiancy in never 100%
    • 2. nutrients can be recycled energy cannot
    • 3. complexity (# of trophic levels) is set energy input
    • 4. pop.s at higher trophic levels have total biomass less than that at lower levels
  12. should prob get more on implications of energy transfer*
  13. 4 important characteristics of biogeocemical cycles
    • 1. nutrients are only usable/available by primary producers in ionized forms
    • 2. nutrient reserves of an ecosystem have 2 sources: enviroment inputs and recycling in detritivores
    • 3. usually, the ammount of nutrients being recycled are much greater than inputs and outputs
    • 4. enviromental inputs (precipitation, weathering, fixation by bacteria) and outputs (run-off, evaporation)
  14. ecosystems are ususally very sensitive to:
    changesin inputs and outputs
  15. 4 compartments of nutrients
    • available
    • unavailable
    • organic
    • inorganic
  16. organic available nutrients
    organisms and detritus
  17. ex. of organic unavailable materials
    coil, oil, peat
  18. ex. inorganic available nutrients
    atmospere, soil, water
  19. ex. of inorganic unavailable nutrients
    minerals and rocks
  20. compartment chart
    Image Upload 2
  21. phosphorous cycle
    • 1. P is bound in rock formations and in organisms
    • 2. erosion and leaching washes P into ocean where it is taken into aquatic ecosystem
    • 3. P atom: 1000x to go from surface to bottom to suface again, each P atom does this 100 times
    • 4. P is then deposited into ocean sediments
    • 5. uplift of ocean bottom, P moves from ocean to land (happens very rarely)
  22. perturbations to cycles by humans
    • deforestation
    • addition of P to deep sea
  23. deforestation increases:
    loss of nutrients significantly
  24. human activities contribute about:
    2/3 of annual flow of P to ocean
  25. addition of P to shallow water causes:
    algal blooms
  26. eutrophication
    rapid input of nutrients to an ecosystem
Card Set
BIO FINAL: pt. 4
key terms and concepts