The Age of Imperialism

  1. Imperialism - Definition of, Reasons for, Results of
    The policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominat other contries politically, economically, or socially. Causes: desire for wealth, spread culture and religion, open new markets and resources, caused millions of lives to be lost, spread language/culture/industrialization, and billions of dollars were made.
  2. Zulu Empire/Shaka
    Early 1800s, shaka leads Zulus. Used unconventional military tactics and conquered/allied w/ neighbors to make a large empire. Army had 50k men, made iklwa, whort stabbing spear. Improved training/tactics of military. His wars killed 1,000,000 people. Went crazy when his mom died, and was killed by his followers.
  3. Boers
    Dutch who were abandoned by dutch, became independant, and drove off tribes of natives and captured regions. Fought wars with the british and native tribes.
  4. The Great Trek
    The journey in the 1830's made by the boers to the north to avoid british rule. Went into zulu territory.
  5. Battle of Blood River
    1838, 500 boers killed several thousand zulus. No boers died due to their guns. (made a big circle w/ wagon trains, had women and children reload guns, and rapid fired at the zulus.)
  6. Anglo-Zulu War/ Battle of Isandelwana
    Anglo-Zulu war: 1850's, gold and diamonds discovered in zulu territory, thousands of settlers moved in to claim it. Battle of isandelwana: Zulus fought british w/ muskets and spears vs repeating rifles. Drew out british and set up ambush. Used "Horns of the bull" strategy, and killed 850/900 british for 2k zulu casualties. British send thousands of reinforcements afterwards and conquered Zulu.
  7. Boer War - Causes and Results
    Caused when british expanded into boer territory. Boers used hit and run tactics. British used total war to counter, and forced boers to surrender. 30k british died, 5k boers died, yet british won(Now they had all of south africa). Boers given role in leading local govt. and established apartheid.
  8. Apartheid
    A system of legalized segregation, discrimination, and racism. Whites (10%) owned 90% of land/govt controlled by them. Blacks formed African National Congress to protest, march, strike, and boycott things related to apartheid. Nelson mandela (leader) often arrested. 1993, apartheid is ended, and in 1994 nelson mendela is made president.
  9. Nelson Mandela
    African National Congress leader, Arrested many times and spent alot of time in jail while protesting apartheid. In 1993, he helped end apartheid, and in 1994 he becomes president of the nation.
  10. Menelik II
    Emperor of ethiopia who helped preserve their independence through buying guns, recieving support from italy, making his nation large, and through skillful negotiations. Became ruler after sahle died, and in 1896 (Battle of adowa) Killed, captured, or wounded 75% of italian forces. Never again were they invaded by any country.
  11. The Berlin Conference
    1885, when several european countries met to split up africa. No african leaders present. Congo given to Leopold (NOT BELGIUM).
  12. Paternalism and Assimilation - Definitions
    • Paternalism: Giving the people what they need, but not any rights.
    • Assimilation: Slowly overpowering another nations culture, Values, ect to the occupying groups.
  13. Direct vs. Indirect Control
    • Indirect Control: Uses already established political rulers, occupier will "ask" country to accept their rule, in which councils will eventually teach the local population methods of british rule, in the hope they will be able to govern themselves.
    • Direct Control:Using Paternalism and Assimilation
  14. Social Darwinism
    The idea that a particular race is "stronger" or more "fit" for rule than others. the name referencing Charles darwin's theory of evolution, w/ natural selection and evolution.
  15. Herero Rebellion
    Herero tribe attacked german farms and settlements, killed 150. Acquired guns, used guerilla/conventional warfare tactics, and was winning. Lothar von trothat brought in w/ 15000 soldiers, machine guns, and artillery, frobe them into the desert and forced to drink poisoned water. 50% of herero died.
  16. Lothar von Trotha
    German General sent in by germany in response to herero rebellion. He was known for his brutallity in battle. He brought in 15,000 soldiers, machine guns, and artillery. Forced herero into the desert in which he poisoned or guarded water sources. Ordered men to kill herero on sight. He killed 50% of the herero using these methods. Inspired Adolf Hitler.
  17. Leopold II
    Figurehead monarch in Belgium. Hired Stanley to explore congo, and set up transportaion networks. Decieved everyone with International Association of the Congo, a fake charity. Takes over congo after berlin conference, and used Force Publique to control population and make income.
  18. Henry Morton Stanley
    Explorer formally from britain, comes to america and works for a newspaper company. Takes an expedition to Africa and writes a story about it. Leopold takes notice, and enlists him to explore congo.
  19. Belgian abuses in the Congo
    Mutilation, Rape, Murder, Portage (Chain gangs), Forced Labor.
  20. Congo Reform Association
    Formed by Roger Casement and E.D. Morel after hearing atrocities from George Washington Williams and William Sheppard. Actual charity. Used Speeches, articles and protests to get the word out about leopold.
  21. British Empire - Main colonies they controlled
    India, South Africa
  22. British East India Company
    Chartered company who eventually controls India.
  23. Battle of Plassey
    Battle led by Robert Clive, a military genius. Kicked out siraj, a former leader of india. And fought Mir Jafar Khan, and won the battle with 3k men vs 50k.
  24. Indian Rebellion of 1857 - Causes and Results
    Last straw was when beef and pig traces were in bullet shells that you had to bite off. Sepoys enraged, and began to kill many europeans. Eventually were taken down by British after Kanpur massacre, where a few men brutally murdered around 200 women and children.
  25. Kanpur Massacre
    When 5 men went into a prison with 211 men women and children and brutally murdered them all. There were limbs and bloody hand prints all around, and the british public demanded the murdering of all the sepoys.
  26. Devil's Wind
    When 100,000 Indians were killed after the indian rebellion failed. Often killed in brutal ways.
  27. Gandhi
    (Mohandes Ghandi) Became a lawyer, and moved to south africa in 1891 to practice law. In 1896, he was beated for being indian, and dedicated the rest of his life to ended discrimination. Began his movement, and moved back to india to try and regain its independence, using "satyagraha" (using passive resistance, Moral Righteousness, and Civil Disobedience) Earns indias independence in 1947, and it assassinated in 1948 by a hindu fanatic.
  28. Passive Resistance and Civil Disobedience
    Being non-violent and disobeying the law publically.
  29. Salt March
    When Gandhi and his followers protest the tax and monopoly on salt in india by going to the ocean, and making their own salt.
  30. Shogun
    The military leader of Japan
  31. Daimyo
    A Noble and wealthy land-owner who controls a small army
  32. Samurai
    Elite Warriors
  33. Bushido
    The art of the warrior
  34. Warring States Period
    When there was a power struggle between daimyos to see who will become shogun, 1450-1600
  35. Tokugawa Ieyasu
    United Japan, and makes the tokugawa shogunate.
  36. Shimabara Revolt
    When several thousand Japanese Christians revolt against tokugawa rule. 37,000 punished afterwards, and christianity is banned
  37. Closed Country Policy
    Nobody is allowed in or out of japan except for a few portugese merchants. Also outlawed all western religions.
  38. Commodore Matthew Perry
    A Military general who forced open trade with japan through use of steamships.
  39. Meiji Era
    A Period when meiji removes the old system, and quickly modernizes. He changes govt, economy, and structure of japan based off of other countries strong points.
  40. Sino-Japanese War
    When China and Japan fight over taiwan, and win in 1894
  41. Russo-Japanese War
    When japan uses a surprise attack to eliminate parts of the russian fleet, and fights to take over korea. They win.
  42. Japanese rule in Korea
    When japan had ruled korea. All jobs were mostly taken by japanese, education was worthless, the korean culture was surpressed, and often times prostitution was encourage, so they could be sold to china.
  43. Japanese invasion of Manchuria - Causes, Results
    Caused by the great depression in japan, and they choose to use imperialism as the answer. They get out of the depression quickly after taking manchuria, and took control of their economy, and installs a puppet ruler.
  44. Japanese Imperialism leading to World War II
    They were threatened by US after taking parts of china that the US would end trade of oil and iron if japan continued. They choose to ally with germany, attack america, and took french colonies.
  45. March 1st Movement
    When koreans protested for their independence, but were quickly put down by the japanese.
  46. Amritsrar Massacre
    When 15,000 indians peacefully were protesting for independence, and were shot down by general dyer's troops. 1000 wounded, 400 killed.
  47. Patrice Lumumba
    Began as co-founder, then president of Movement National Congolese. Arrested in 1959, then released after huge protests. Became Prime minister in 1960, and urged to become fully independant, U.S. and Belgium worked together to take him, then he was executed by firing squad.
Card Set
The Age of Imperialism
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