Modern Theatre

  1. "Father's of Modern Design"
    • Adolphe Appia
    • Edward Gordon Craig
  2. Adolphe Appia
    • Rejected realism
    • Pure beauty/abstract rather than ideal
    • Interpreter of the script
    • Hierarchy of design
    • Successive setting shifts
  3. Edward Gordon Craig
    • Rejected realism
    • Pure beauty/abstract rahter than ideal
    • Autonomous artist
    • Doesn't how close to the script you are
    • Equal emphasis of all elements
    • Single setting
  4. Vsevolod Meyerhold
    • Symbolism
    • Highly experimental, theatrical revolution
    • Conflicted with Stanislavsky
    • spectator must never forget they are in the theatre
    • Subordination of actors
    • A director's theatre
    • Director's right to re-shape the script
    • Sought alternate forms, new spatial relationships, speech, movement, and rhythm
  5. Ballets Russes
    • Short ballet works
    • Innovative choreography
    • Stylized scenery
    • Unusual colorization, compostion, and forced perpective
    • Careful integration of realism and nonrealism
  6. Friedrich Nietzsche
    • The Birth of Tragedy
    • Apollonian VS Dionysian
    • reason vs instinct
  7. Benjamin Franklin Wedekind
    • Spring Awakening
    • Mix between naturalism, symbolism, and grotesque subject
    • Strong influence on expressionism and epic theatre
  8. Max Reinhardt
    • Integration of realism and nonrealism
    • Ensemble playing, respect for script, production detail
    • Eclectic approach
    •     every play creates its own problem and requires its own unique approach
    • Established a community among spectators
    • Working method: delegation while maintaining control, care for detail, integrated elements, PROMPT BOOKS
  9. Alfred Jarry
    • Ubu Roi
    •     grotesque and bitter comedy
    •     initially written for puppets
    •     Performance at the Theatre de l'Oeuvre
    •     violently divided audience
    • Legacy - some say he's the first absurdist
  10. Commercial Theatre - Italy
    • Itailian opera dominated
    • Itailian touring theatre
    • Eleanor Duse
  11. Eleanor Duse
    • Known for playing characters in Ibsen's plays
    • Praised for her realistic acting style
    • Mounted her own productions
  12. Commercial Theatre - Spain
    Plays were primarily centimental and melodramatic
  13. Commercial Theatre - France
    • Began to take on nonrealism
    • Edmond Rostand
    • Georges Feydeau
    • Constant-Benoit Coquelin
    • Sarah Bernhardt
  14. Edmond Rostand
    The Romancers (The Fantastics)
  15. Georges Feydeau
    • Extracts the greatest humor by masterful misunderstandings
    • A Flea in her Ear
  16. Constant-Benoit Coquelin
    Noted for his technical acting
  17. Sarah Bernhardt
    • Particularly know for playing Phadrea
    • Plays were written for her
    • Most famous actress of her time
  18. Commercial theatre - England
    • Mostly commercial theatre (well made play, melodrama)
    • Henry Irving
    • Herbert Beerbohm
  19. Henry Irving
    • Considered England's best actor
    • First actor to be knighted
    • Followed teachings of Saxe Meiningin
    • Concerned with historical accuracy
    • Designed 3dimensional elements
    • Said to be first English director to make art of lighting
    • Relied on stars
    • Scripts were reshaped to focus on the stars
    • Put less time into rehearsals
  20. Herbert Beerbohm
    • Spectacular realism reached its peak
    • Very popular production of Midsummer Nights Dream
  21. Nonrealistic Production - England
    William Poel
    • Staging of Shakespeare
    • Recreated Renaissance theatre
    • Continuity of action
  22. Nonrealistic Production - England
    Harley Granville Barker
    • Established/produced Shaw successfully
    • Royal Court Theatre
    • Synthesized Shakespearian experimentaion
    • Created a new interpretation for modern theatre
    • Less realistic, more stylized
  23. Commercial Theatre - United States
    • Many playwrights took on realistic dialogue but remained melodramtic and centimental
    • Touring companies underminded resident companies
    • The mass move to New York begins
    • The Syndicate
    • David Belasco
    • The Shuberts
  24. The Syndicate
    • 3 booking industries in NY merged
    • Offered a company an entire season
    • Developed exclusive contracts
    • Best plays went to this company, theatres that didn't began to close up
    • Formed/built a monopoly on theatre
  25. David Belasco
    • Very popular producer
    • Resisted the syndicate
    • Took naturalistic staging of melodrama to its limit
    • Very innovative lighting - Louis Hartman
  26. The Shuberts
    • Producers
    • Competed and beat out the Syndicate
    • Bought or built theatres
    • Developed a "top-down" monopoly
  27. 1910-1925 New Modes of Perception
    • Expressionism
    • Surrealism
    • Futurism
    • Dada

    • Carl Jung
    • Anthropological studies
    • Albert Einstein

    • Discontinuity of time
    • Disconnection of elements
    • Juxteposition of elements that are uncertain
  28. Carl Jung
    • Friend/follower of Freud
    • Collective unconcious
    • Introverted art - personal
    • Extroverted art - collective (more powerful)
  29. Albert Einstein
    • Idea of Relativity
    • For most came to mean that all perceptions are subjective
  30. Expressionism
    • Truth and beauty reside in the mind
    • Opposed to naturalism and symbolism
    • Truth within humanity
    • Organization between idea, theme, and motive
    • Sacrifice of central character - to materialism, society, etc.
    • Reduction of elements - characters named by their role in society
    • Use of distortion
    • Sharp contrast - realism/dream world, poetry/obcenity
    • Fantasy and magic
    • Primarily a German movement
  31. Expressionistic Production
    • Simplification
    • Distortion
    • Emphasis on lighting
  32. Futurism
    • Glorified the machine age and war
    • Confrontation of the audience - sell same ticket twice
    • Innovative techniques - brevity, compression, simultaneous events
    • Centered in Italy
  33. Enrico Prampolini
    • Believed painted scenery should be replaced with dynamic architectual moving flats
    • Human actors will no longer be tolerated
    • In production, people look very mechanical
  34. Dada
    • Name chosen at random
    • Calculated madness
    • Disgusted that the world could produce a World War
    • Replaced normal convention with spontenaity, all inclusiveness
    • Borrowed techniques from Futurism
    • Bruitisme: similar to art of noises
    • Simutaneity and Collage
    • Direct confrontation
    • It's spirit and attitude questions everything
    • Very similar to the attitude of the 60's
  35. Surrealism
    • Concentrated on the ability of the human mind and the unconscious
    • Unconscious is key
    • Unified opposites
    • Think metaphorically

    • Familiar character put in unusual settings
    • Scenes that don't seem related to one another
  36. Guillame Apollinaire
    • The Breast of Tiresius
    • Ideal stage - circular, two stages
  37. Jean Cocteau
    The Infernal Machine
  38. Frederico Garcia Lorca
    Blood Wedding
  39. Epic Theatre
    • Grew out of high political awareness of the time
    • About making change

    • Workers Political League
    • Political drama
    • Karlheinz Martin
    • Erwin Piscator
    • Bertolt Brecht

    Primarily a German movement
  40. Workers Political League
    • Performed political skits
    • Desired to make the spectator think and act in the world
    • The purpose was to influence/motivate what the audience members do when they leave the theatre
  41. Karlheinz Martin
    • The Tribune (Theatre Company)
    • The Proletarian Theatre

    • "We do not ask for an audience, but a community.
    • Not a stage, but a pulpit."
  42. Erwin Piscator
    • "Drama must be subordinated to revolutionary ends."
    • The theatre had little money
    • Eventually the "poor theatre" look became a style
    • Projection - incorporation of projections of news reel clips, movies, etc
  43. Bertolt Brecht
    • Developed the sense of epic theatre into a theory
    • Spectator is vital and active
    • Engaged the spectator through alienation
    • Audiences must always be aware they are watching a play
    • Episodic - alternates between dialogue and narration
    • Rapid shifts in time and place
    • Dialectic
    • Flaunted stage technology
    • Antirealistic acting
    • Un-unified production
  44. Bauhaus
    • A school/organization
    • Combined the study of craft with fine arts
    • Reconnection of craft to art
    • Questioned what is art in a mechanistic world

    • Lothar Schreyer
    • Studied the human shape and figure in space
    • Created 3dimensional costumes, geometric shapes

    Laszlo Moholy-Nagy - light in motion

    • Architecture - Gropius
    • Designed a theatre for Piscator
    • circular stage, middle turntable
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Modern Theatre
Theatre History