BIO41 Exam1

  1. What is microbiology?
    the study of microscopic organisms (microbes)
  2. What sorts of organisms are considered microbes?
    simple cells, protozoa, algae, fungi, helminths, viruses
  3. What is taxonomy?
    defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups
  4. Who introduced binomial nomenclature?
    Carl Linnaeus
  5. What was Bergey's contribution to taxonomy?
    Manual of Systemic Bacteriology-main resource for determining the identity of bacteria species, utilizing every characterizing aspect
  6. What are the 5 kingdoms?
    • 1) Monera
    • 2) Protista
    • 3) Animalia
    • 4) Plantae
    • 5) Fungi
  7. How do we determine which kingdom an organism should belong in?
    common characteristics
  8. What kingdom are bacteria in?
  9. Which kingdoms are microbes in?
    Monera, Protista, Fungi 
  10. What are the 3 domains?
    • 1) Eukarya
    • 2) Archaea
    • 3) Bacteria
  11. Which domain are multicellular organisms in?
  12. Why was the Three-Domain system proposed?
    DNA sequencing revealed 3 the domains arose separately
  13. How are bacteria named?
    Genus + species
  14. How old is earth?
    4.5 billion years
  15. How old are bacteria?
    3.5 billion years
  16. How old are eukaryotes?
    2 billion years
  17. 3 ways microbes can adapt
    • 1) toxin production
    • 2) structural modifications
    • 3) metabolic modifications
  18. nosocomial infection
    hospital-acquired infection
  19. What is microbial antagonism?
    the competition between normal microbes and pathogens for nutrients and space
  20. Leeuwenhoek's contribution to microbiology
    first discovered the bacterial world
  21. Koch's contribution to microbiology
    1st to trace a disease to a bacterium
  22. Semmelweis' contribution to microbiology
    • pioneer in antisepsis;
    • had med students wash hands with chlorinated water
  23. Golden Age of Microbiology
    Late 1800s
  24. Koch's postulates (4)
    • 1) Pathogen must be found only in abundance in sick
    • 2) Must be isolated and grown in pure culture
    • 3) Should cause disease when introduced to healthy organism
    • 4) Must be reisolated and reidentified as identical pathogen

    -establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease
  25. germ theory of disease
    disease is caused by a specific pathogen/germ
  26. miasma
    an emanation from rotting organic matter that caused disease
  27. Pasteur's hypotheses to determine the nature of fermentation
    • 1) Spontaneous fermentation occurs (rejected)
    • 2) Air ferments grape juice (rejected)
    • 3) Bacteria ferment grape juice into alcohol (modifed)
    • 4) Yeasts ferment grape juice into alcohol (accepted)
  28. Scientific method
    • 1) observation leads to a question
    • 2) hypothesis generated
    • 3) design/conduct experiment
    • 4) accept/reject/modify hypothesis based on observed results from experiment
  29. Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic cell size
    8-50µm vs 1µm
  30. What do eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells don't?
    individually enclosed organelles
  31. How is a euk and prok cell membrane similar? Different?
    • Similar: phospholipid bilayer, glycoproteins
    • Different: prok enclosed in cell wall, most metabolic processes done here
  32. euk nuclear membrane
    has 2 phospholipid bilayers with nuclear pores that allow transcription factors and RNA in/out
  33. nucleolus
    more densely packed/stained region in the nucleus where RNA is synthesized/transcribed
  34. chromatin
    • threadlike mass of DNA associated with special proteins
    • called histones that play a role in packaging nuclear DNA

    prokaryotes don't have chromatin (supercoiled)
  35. mitosis
    nuclear division resulting in 2 identical cells with the same amount of DNA

    in eukaryotes only
  36. meiosis
    nuclear division partitioning chromatids into 4 nuclei with half the amount of non-identical DNA 

    necessary for sexual reproduction
  37. cytoskeleton
    internal network of fibers maintaining a cell's basic form

    also used for movement in some bacterial cells

    found in prok's and euk's
  38. mitochondria
    functions in aerobic ATP production

    has 2 phospholipid bilayers, with inner membrane folded into numerous cristae that increase surface area

    found only in euk's
  39. chloroplast
    function in photosynthesis - gather light energy to produce ATP and form sugar from CO2

    found in only in photosynthetic eukaryotes
  40. ribosome function and structure
    forms proteins during translation

    • prok: 70S (30S + 50S)
    • euk: 80S (40S + 60S)
  41. smooth ER
    lipid/steroid synthesis

    detox in hepatocytes
  42. rough ER
    • has ribosomes attached
    • ribosomes make protein & collect in ET to be delivered to Golgi
  43. Golgi body
    modifies, sorts, targets proteins
  44. lysosome
    breakdown of unwanted intracellular material
  45. peroxisome
    • oxidizes amino acids (long chain FA's)
    • keeps byproducts of photosynthesis from building up in plants
    • contain peroxide
  46. (eukaryotic) vacuole
    • large, long-term storage compartments
    • store water, salts, fat, glycogen, starches, etc
  47. What euk's have cell walls? What are they made of?
    plants, algae, fungi, some protozoa

    made of cellulose, chitin, polysaccharides 
  48. What gives a bacteria its shape?
    cell wall
  49. bacteria shapes
    • 1) cocci
    • 2) bacilli
    • 3) vibrio
    • 4) spirilla
    • 5) spirochete
    • 6) pleimorphic
  50. major component of bacterial cell
    70% water
  51. arrangements of bacterial cells
    • diplo
    • strepto
    • v-shape
    • palisade (bacilla stacked)
    • tetrad (4 in square)
    • sarcinae (8 in cube)
    • staphylo
    • filamentous
  52. bacterial cell macromolecules
    • proteins
    • polysaccharides
    • DNA
    • phospholipids

    make up 26% of cell
  53. major functions of bacterial cell wall
    • structural protection
    • adjust to salinity changes
    • identification
  54. What is the bacterial cell wall made of?
  55. peptidoglycan structure
    • axis 1: alternating sugars NAM & NAG
    • axis 2&3: tetrapeptide & glycine chain crossbridges
  56. Gram(+) vs Gram(-)
    • (+): thicker layer of peptidoglycan & teichoic acid
    • (-): think layer of PTG; external, additional bilayer w/ outer leaflet made of LPS
  57. What is LPS? What are its 3 components?
    part of external layer of cell wall

    • 1) Lipid A
    • 2) core sugar
    • 3) variable O (sugar) side chain
  58. acid-fast bacterium
    has thick wall like Gram(+) but made of waxy substance called mycolic acid
  59. glycocalyx
    • secreted by bacteria to help them
    • 1) stick to surfaces
    • 2) resist being recognized/engulfed by phagocytes
    • usually viscous polysaccharide
  60. biofilm
    aggregate of microbes in a sticky material to adhere to surfaces

    "live coating of bacteria"
  61. pili/fimbriae
    • protein extensions of bacterial cells
    • contain protein @ end to attach to specific targets
    • pili if few, fimbriae if many
  62. 3 major types of archaebacteria
    • 1) methanogens
    • 2) halophiles
    • 3) thermoacidophiles
  63. metabolism
    all chemical reactions in an organism
  64. catabolism
    breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones
  65. phototroph
    use light as energy source
  66. chemotroph
    acquire energy from redox rxns of in/organic chemicals
  67. autotroph
    utilize inorganic C as sole source of C
  68. heterotroph
    catabolize reduced organic molecules they acquire from other organisms
  69. photoheterotroph
    energy from light, C from eating other organisms
  70. chemoautotroph
    energy from chemical compounds, C from CO2 (inorganic C)

  71. photoautotroph
    energy from light, C from CO2

  72. chemoheterotroph
    energy from chemical compounds, C from organic compounds

    most animals, fungi
  73. holoenzyme
    combination of cofactor and apoenzyme
  74. factors affecting enzyme activity
    • heat,
    • pH,
    • oxidation,
    • mechanical agitation,
    • enyzme/subtrate concentrations
    • inhibition
  75. competitive vs noncompetitive inhibtion
    • competitive inhibitors bloc active sites;
    • non attach to allosteric site, altering active site
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BIO41 Exam1