Fundamentals of Nursing Chapters 23, 26, and 42

  1. Define Stress
    Condition in which the person experiences changes in the normal balanced state
  2. Define what a Stressor is
    Any event or stimulus that causes an individual to experience stress
  3. Define the coping responses of stress
    • Coping strategies
    • Coping response
    • Coping mechanisms
  4. What are the indicators of Mild Anxiety?
    • Increased questioning
    • Mild restlessness
    • Sleeplessness
    • Feelings of increase arousal and alertness
    • Use of learning to adapt
  5. What are the indicators of Moderate Anxiety?
    • Voice tremors and ptch changes
    • Tremors
    • Facial twitches
    • Shakiness
    • Increased muscle tension
    • Narrowed focus of attention
    • Ability to focus, but selectively inattentive
    • Slightly impaired learning
    • Slight increased RR and HR
    • Mild gastric symptoms
  6. What are the indicators of Severe Anxiety?
    • Communication that is difficult to understand
    • Increased motor activity
    • Inability to relax
    • Fearful facial expression
    • Inability to focus or concentrate
    • Easily distracted
    • Severely impaired learning
    • Tachycardia
    • Hyperventilation
    • Headache
    • Dizziness
    • Nausea
  7. What are the indicators of Panic?
    • Communication not understandable
    • Increased motor activity
    • Agitation
    • Unpredictable responses
    • Trembling poor motor coordination
    • Perception distorted or exaggerated
    • Inability to learn or function
    • Dyspnea, palpitations, choking
    • Chest pain/pressure
    • Feeling of impending doom
    • Paresthesia, sweating
    • May feel they are having a heart attack
  8. Between stimulus and response, what do we have?
    • A choice!
    • We have to think about how we will handle things!
  9. What are some indicators of stress?
    • Physiological
    • Phychological
    • Cognitive
  10. What are some physiological  indicators of stress?
    • Pupils dilate
    • Sweat production increases
    • Heart rate and cardiac output increase
    • Skin is pallid
    • Sodium and water retention
    • Rate and depth of respiration increase
    • Urinary output decreases
    • Mouth may be dry
    • Peristalsis of the intestines decrease for serious threats
    • Mental alertness improves
    • Blood sugar increases
  11. What are some psychological indicators of stress?
    • Anxiety (mild, moderate, severe, and panic)
    • Fear
    • Anger
    • Depression
    • Unconscious ego defense mechanisms
  12. How many levels of anxiety are there?
    • Four (4)
    •  - Mild
    •  - Moderate
    •  - Severe
    •  - Panic
  13. What are the three models of stress?
    • Stimulus-based models
    • Response-based models
    • Transaction-based models
  14. Define the Stimulus-based Models
    • Stress defined as a stimulus, a life event, or set of circumstances that arouses physiologic/psychologic reaction
    • This stress may increase vulnerability to illness
    • Both positive and negative events considered stressful
    • EXAMPLE: Moving into your dream house is still stressful!
  15. Define the Response-based Models
    • Stress may be considereda response
    • Selye (1956, 1976) defined as nonspecific response of body to any kind of demand made upon it
  16. Define the Transaction-Based Models
    • Based on work of Lazarus (1966)
    • Set of cognitive, affective, and adaptive (coping) responses that arise out of person-environment transactions
    • Person and environment are inseparable - each affects and affected by the other
    • Stress refers to any event in which environmental and/or internal demands tax adaptive resources of individual, social system, or tissue system
  17. What are some cognitive indicators of stress?
    • Problem solving
    • Structuring
    • Self-control or self-discipline
    • Suppression
    • Fantasy or daydreaming
  18. What are some of the defense mechanisms that can come up when an individual is under stress?
    • Compensation
    • Denial
    • Displacement
    • Identification
    • Intellectualiation
    • Introjection
    • Minimization
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Reaction formation
    • Regression
    • Repression
    • Sublimation
    • Substitution
    • Undoing
  19. Define coping
    • Dealing with change (either successfully or unsuccessfully)
    • Coping strategy is natural or learned way of responding to changing environment or specific problem or situation 
  20. What are the different types of coping?
    • Problem-focused
    • Emotion-focused 
    • A combination of both
  21. Define problem-focused coping
    Efforts to improve situation by making changes or taking action
  22. Define emotion-focused coping
    • Thoughts and actions that relieve emotional distress
    • Doesn't improve situation but person feels better
  23. List the four types of coping strategies
    • Long term
    • Short term
    • Adaptive
    • Maladaptive
  24. Define the long term coping strategy
    Can be constructive and realistic
  25. Define the short term coping strategy
    • Reduce stress temporarily but ineffective to deal with reality
    • May be destructive or detrimental
  26. Define an adaptive coping strategy
    • Can be affective
    • Result of effective coping
  27. Define a maladaptive coping strategy
    • Results in unnecessary distress
    • Results from ineffective coping
  28. Describe the type of NURSING HISTORY that can be taken for a patient who is dealing with stress
    • Client-perceived stressors or stressful incidents
    • Manifestations of stress
    • Past and present coping strategies
    • Developmental transitions
Card Set
Fundamentals of Nursing Chapters 23, 26, and 42
Week 9 Flash Cards