n304 renal GU

  1. clues to renal disorders on prenatal US?
  2. primary enuresis?
    bedwetting in a child who has never had voluntary bladder control
  3. secondary enuresis
    bedwetting in a child with previous control over bladder
  4. mgmt of enuresis?
    • ^ fluids during day, restrict before bedtime
    • routine schedule
    • education and support
  5. DDAVP?
    • oral/nasal spray antidiuretic
    • not given <6 years
  6. DDAVP, oxybutynin or imipramide?
    enuresis pharm therapies
  7. most common cause of UTI?
    E coli
  8. most common bacterial infx in children?
  9. why is UTI more common in infants/children than older?
    shorter urethra
  10. s/sx of UTIs?
    fever, jaundice, poor eating, weight loss
  11. vesicoureteral reflux?
    • backward urine flow from bladder to ureters to renal pelvis
    • common in kids with UTI
  12. long term complications from vesicoureteral reflux?
    renal damage
  13. nursing mgmt of vesicoureteral reflux?
    prophylaxis abx, surgical correction, follow up VCUG
  14. obstructive uropathy?
    abnormalities in urinary system that interfere with urine flow
  15. hydronephrosis?
    accumulation of urine in renal pelvis due to obstructed outflow of urine
  16. post urethral valve
    • obstruction that blocks urethra
    • clinical emergency
    • urine backs up and can cause permanent kidney damage
  17. ileal conduit?
    ureters disconnected from bladder, reattached to ileum
  18. normal descent of testes when?
    7th - 9th month of gestation
  19. if undescended testes is not corrected, increased risk for..?
    testicular cancer
  20. hypospadias/epispadias?
    • hypo - urethral opening on top of penis
    • epispadias - urethral opening underneath penis
  21. contraindication for hypospadias/epispadias?
    neonatal circumcision. skin may be used for reconstruction
  22. acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis occurs when?
    1-2 weeks after a strep infection
  23. most common childhood renal disease? peak age?
    • AGN (acute post-strep glomerulonephritis)
    • age 5-7
  24. pathophys of AGN?
    complex of antigen-antibody is lodged in glomeruli.  inflammatory response, reduced renal function.
  25. how to diagnose AGN?
    • throat culture
    • *look for elevated antibody titer (antistreptolysin O)
    • * elevated erythrocyte sedimentation
    • ^ BUN/crt
  26. important to monitor during AGN?
    BP!  hypertension common compx
  27. complications of AGN
    • ◦ Severe hypertension *
    • ◦ Hypertensive encephalopathy*
    • ◦ Seizures*
    • ◦ Cardiac decompensation from hypervolemia*
    • ◦ Acute renal failure* 
  28. nephrotic syndrome
    • autoimmune process 1 wk after immune response
    • permeability of membrane is changed (letting more thru).
    • proteins spilling into urine
  29. albumin levels secondary to nephrotic syndrome?
    very low. (losing protein)
  30. hypoalbumenia, proteinuria, hyperlipidemia.. indicators of what?
    nephrotic syndrome
  31. why so much edema with nephrotic syndrome?
    • third spacing.
    • intravascular fluid -> interstitial space > hypovolemia
  32. pharm treatment for nephrotic sydnrome?
    corticosteroids, IVIG
Card Set
n304 renal GU
n304 renal and GU systems