PSY 323 Exam 1

  1. Scientific Method
    • Empiricism
    • Based of the Principle of falsifiability
    • Peer Review
  2. The idea that knowlege is based on observations
  3. Goals of Empirical Psychology
    • Describe Behavior
    • Prediction of Behavior
    • Finding causes of Behavior
    • Explaination of Behavior
  4. Tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behavior
    Basic Research
  5. Conducted to address isses in which there are practical problems and potential solutions.
    Applied Research
  6. Assesses the social reforms and innocations that occur in fovernment, education, the criminal justice system, industry, health care, and mental health institutions.
    Program evaluation
  7. Prediction based in theory and tested through research
  8. Consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon.
  9. Sources of Research Ideas
    • Common Sense
    • Observation of things happening in the world
    • Past Research
    • Practical problems
    • Theories
  10. Steps in the Research Process
    • Literature search
    • Formulate a Hypothesis
    • Select a research method
    • Data collection
    • Draw conclusions based on the data
    • Report the results
  11. The summary of a research report and typically runs no more than 120 words in length.
  12. The researcher outlines the problem that has been investigated.
  13. Who are the participants and how many are there?
    How was this sample obtained, recruited, and selected?
    What are the demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, etc.) of the sample?
    How was informed consent solicited/obtained?
    Method: Participants
  14. What measures, materials, equipment, or apparatus were used in this study?
    Describe any surveys/questionnaires used.
    If assessments involve novel measures created for this study, what data are offered regarding about reliability and validity?
    Methods: Materials
  15. Where was the study conducted?
    What is the chronological sequence of events to which subjects were exposed?
    What checks were made to ensure that the conditions were carried out as intended?
    What else does the reader need to know to understand how subjects were treated and what conditions were provided?
    Methods: Procedures
  16. The researcher present the findings, ususally in three ways.

    How were the data analyzed?
          What statistical procedures were used?
          Were there any missing data?
    Describe your findings from the data analysis.
          Tables and graphs
          Statistical description
  17. What are the major findings?
    How do these findings add to research and support, refute, or inform current theory?
    What limitations or qualifiers must be placed on the study given methodological and design issues?
    What research should follow from this study in order to move the field forward?
  18. The researcher reviews the research from various perspectives.
    Discussion section
  19. Cost/Benefit Analysis
    • Costs
    •   *Potential risks to the participants
    • Benefits
    • *Direct benefits to participants
    • *To science
    • *To society
  20. To keep participants from knowing what's really going on in the study.
  21. Two types of deception
    • Mislead participants about the nature of the study
    • Fail to fully disclose all aspects of the study
  22. Participants agree to participate after being informed about:

    Purpose of the study
    Potential risks and benefits
    Rights to refuse or terminate participation
    Informed Consent
  23. After the study, inform participant about...

    The research questions being addressed
    Why deception, if used, was necessary
  24. Increased ethical sensitivity when participants are:

    Younger than 18
    Receiving medical or psychological treatment
    Research with Special Populations
  25. A review committee established to review proposed research for ethical considerations.

    - made up of people from the community
    Institutional Review Board
  26. Only 7-8% of psychological research uses animals

    95% of these are rats, mice, and birds
    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
  27. The fabrication of Data:
  28. Misrepresenting another's works as your own.
  29. Any event, situation, or behavior that has at least two levels
  30. Types of variables:
    • Quantitative
    • Categorical
    • Participant/Blocking
  31. Define a variable in terms of the methods used to measure the
    Operational definition
  32. Relationships between Quantitative Variables
    • Positive Correlations
    • Negative Correlations
    • Curvilinear Coefficient
  33. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
    Symbolized as r
  34. Thought to be the “cause” variable
    Predictor variables
  35. Thought to be the “effect” variable
    Criterion variables
  36. Positive correlation between eating garlic and having bad breath
    Predictor variable =
    Criterion variable =
    • Predictor variable = garlic
    • Criterion variable = bad breath
  37. Advantages of Non-Experimental Research
    • Prediction of future behavior
    • Description of behavior
    • Study participant variables
    • Can study variables that would be unethical or impractical to manipulate in a true experiment
  38. Disadvantages of Non-Experimental Methods
    • Difficult to infer cause and effect
    • Third variable problem
    • Possibility of reverse causality
  39. Variables are kept constant
    Experimental Control
  40. Manipulated by the experimenter
    Independent Variable (IV)
  41. Depends on the manipulation of the IV
    Dependent Variable (DV)
  42. Advantages of Experimental Research
    • Permits conclusions about cause & effect relationships
    • Precise control over extraneous variables
  43. Disadvantages of Experimental Research
    • Artificial environment
    • Ethical & practical considerations
    • Problems generalizing from the sample to the population
  44. What are the four types of validity?
    • Construct validity
    • Internal validity
    • External validity
    • Conclusion
  45. Refers to the adequacy of the operational definitions of variables
    Construct validity
  46. Refers to our abliity to accuratrely draw conclusions about casual relationships
    Internal validity
  47. The extent to which results of a study cna be generalized to other populations and settings.
    External validity
  48. The real score on the variable.
    True score
  49. The degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score value
    Measurement error
  50. Assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time.
    Test - retest reliability
  51. The extenet to which raters agree in their observations
    Interrater reliability
  52. The assessment of reliability using responses at only one point in time.
    Internal consistency reliability
  53. The correlation of the total score on one half of the test with the total score on the other half
    Split-half reliability
  54. Concerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate
    Construct validity
  55. The degree to which a measurement device accurately predicts
    behavior on a criterion measure.
    Criterion validity
  56. The content of the measure appears to reflect the construct being measured.
    Face validity
  57. Research that uses a measure to predict some future
    Predictive validity
  58. Demonstrated by research that examines the relationship between teh measure and a criterion behavior at the same time.
    Concurrent validity
  59. A measure is reactive if it changes the behavior being measured.
    Reactivity of measures
  60. Variables that identify different changes
    Nominal variables
  61. Nominal Scales
    • Have no numerical properties
    • One category is not greater, higher, etc. than the other category
  62. Ordinal Variables
    • Variables that reflect a particular order or sequence
    • Variables can be rank ordered
  63. Ordinal Scales
    • Order points on a scale
    • Numeric values are limited
    • Intervals between items are not known, and are not equal
  64. Interval Variables
    Data that equal units of measurement; the intervals between any two successive numbers reflect equal changes
  65. Interval Scale
    • Numeric properties are literal
    • Assume equal interval between values
  66. Ratio variables
    • Variables that reflect standard & equal intervals
    • Has an absolute zero point of origin
  67. Ratio scale
    zero indicates absence of variable measured.
  68. Advantages of Qualitative Research
    • Explore new research areas
    • Detailed info
    • Some argue they are more ethical
  69. The researcher makes observations of individuals in tehir natural environments.
    Naturalistic Observation
  70. An observational method that provides a description of an individual.
    Case Study
  71. A type of case study un which a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual, usually an important historical figure.
  72. The systematic analysis of existing documents
    Content analysis
  73. Advantages of Quantitative Research
    • Data is easy to gather and numeric properties makes it easy to analyze
    • Results are more generalizable to the overall population
    • Ability to randomize participants and conditions
    • Good for testing theories and hypothesis
  74. Disadvantage of Quantitative Research
    • Does not allow researcher to obtain detailed and in-depth information from participants
    • Could possibly lead to reactivity in participants
  75. An interval of values within which there is a given level of confidence (e.g. 95%) where the population value lies.
    Confidence interval
  76. The confidence interval gives you information about the likely amount of  the error.
    Sampling error
  77. Each member of the population has a specifiable probability of being chosen.
    Probabiltiy Sampling
  78. Every member of the population has an equal probabilty of being selected for the sample.
    Simple Random Sampling
  79. The population is divided into subgroups, and random sampling techiniques ar ethen used to select sample members from each stratum.
    Stratified random sampling
  80. A probability sampling method in which existing groups or geographic areas, called clusters, are identified. Clusters are randomly sampled and then everyone in the selected clusters participates in the study.
    Cluster Sampling
  81. Type of sampling procedure in which one cannot specidy the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample.
    Nonprobability sampling
  82. Selecting subjects in haphazard manner, ususally on the basis of availability, and not with regard to having a representative sample of the population.
    Haphazard (Convenience) sampling
  83. A type of haphazard sample conducted to obtain a predetermined types of individuals for the sample.
    Purposive Sample
  84. A sampling procedure in which the sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in the population. A haphazard sampling technique is used to obtain the sample.
    Quota Sampling
  85. The actual population of individuals from which a ranom sample will be drawn.
    Sampling Frame
  86. The percentage of people selected for a sample who actrualled completed a survey.
    Response Rate
  87. Reasons for using convenience samples
    – easy to obtain/achieve
Card Set
PSY 323 Exam 1
Ch 1-7