China 1600-1900

  1. Sun Yatsen
    • Who? father of the revolution
    • what? -earliest to look at social darminism and make a change -calls for revolution to overthrown the qing dynasty -founder of chinses nationalist party
    • when? 1898
    • where? china
    • how? reform in court
  2. Hong Xiuquan
    • who? gods given son
    • what? -believes he is brother of jesus -equality between sexes -all people share everything equal -led taiping rebellion against ming dynasty -failed civil service exams multiple times
    • when? 1840s
    • where? china
  3. Taiping Rebellion
    • who? Hong Xiuquan and other leaders
    • what? -Qing Dynasty v Taiping Heavenly Kingdom -Kingdom had new ideas -threat to take over qing dynasty -killed 40 million people (largest civil war) -qing dynasty victory -weakening of the qing dynasty
    • when? 1850-1864
    • where? southern china
    • why? heavenly kingdom had christianity and qing saw them as a threat 
  4. Treaty of Nanjing
    • who? British and Chinese
    • what? resolves the opium war 1china pay britain for losing 2destroy canton system 3west no longer barbarians 4britain gets Hong Kong 5Qing open country to westerners 
    • when? 1842
    • where? Nanjing China
    • How? signed unequally
  5. Treaty of Nerchinsk
    • who? Russia and China
    • what? -first treaty between Russia and China -fixes northern boarder -boarder stones made
    • when? 1689
    • where? northern boarder of china
    • how? treaty
  6. White Lotus Rebellion
    • who? impoverished settlers in the mountanious region that separates sichuan province from hubei and shaanxi provinces
    • what? -tax rebellion -Zeng Guofan inspired by methods
    • when? 1794
    • where? chinas mountains
  7. Kang Youwei
    • who? high level official
    • what? leader in 100 days reforms (goes into hiding after)
    • when? 1898
    • where? chinas courts
    • why? reform china
    • how? with with emperor (teen)
  8. Ming Dynasty
    • what? -empire of the great ming -
    • when? 1368-1644
    • where? 
    • how?
  9. Beida
    university in beijing created during 100 days reforms *only thins to survive reforms (modeled after western universities)
  10. Influx of Silver
    • who? Britain sell to china
    • what? -trade of silver -positive economy at first
    • when? 1500s
    • why? -increase trade -procelin, silk and tea
    • where? china with britain
  11. Internal vs external forces
    • Internal
    • population growth
    • involution
    • tax structure
    • opium addiction
    • rise of government curruption
    • gap between rich and poor
    • decline in public works
    • natural disasters
    • military neglect

    • External
    • contact with west
    • clash in world views
    • the 3 m's
    • canton system
  12. Dynastic Cycle
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  13. Canton System
    • who? chinese
    • what? confining western trade to 1 port (guangzhou)
    • when? 1830s
    • where? Guangshou
    • how? close off all other ports
  14. Zeng Goufan and Li Hongzhang
    • who? two men
    • what? -study western technologies -help defeat tiaping -part of movement
    • when? 1864
    • where? Beijing
    • how? western studies
  15. Treaty of Tianjin
    • who? china and britain
    • what? unequal treaty
    • when? 1857
    • where? chinas interior
    • how? -9 more trading ports must be opened -allow foreign diplomats to be housed in national capital
  16. Koxinga
    • who? "pirate" in control of coastling and Taiwan -loyalist of the ming
    • what? -forced all chinese men to shave head except for back (braid) called a queue as a sign of chinese submission -no foot binding allowed
    • where? china
    • why? need power
  17. Li Zicheng
    • who? leads rebellion against ming (poor postal worker)
    • what? -leads rebellions -north china plain rebellion -kills emperor -no one supports him
    • when? 1640s
    • how? invasions
  18. "Self-strengthening movement"
    • who? chinese government
    • what? -recruit good men for public office -moral behavior, western science
    • when? 1860
    • where? chinese governement
    • how? studying western culture
  19. First Sino-Japanese War
    • who? china v Japan
    • what? japan wants chinese content and to be a world power
    • when? 1894-95
    • where? china and water
    • how? boats --> china sunk and defeated
  20. Treaty of Shimonoseki
    • who? China and Japan
    • what? 1. china lose control and influence of korean peninsula 2. taiwan control given to japanese 3. china pay japan for losing
    • when? 1895
    • where? Shimonoseki
    • how? officials sign -unequal (japan as more power)
  21. Kangxi
    • who? emperor during qing dynasty 
    • what? -enthroned at the age of seven -interested in Western technology and wanted to import them to China -first precise map of Beijing -fond of the Jesuits
    • when?1662-1722
    • where? china
  22. Yongzheng
    • who? 3rd emperor during qing
    • what? -main goal: create effective government at minimal expense -song of kangxi -militant -era of peace and prosperity -cracked down on corruption and waste -reformed financial administration
    • when? 1722 to 1735
    • where? china
  23. Qianlong
    • who? 6th emperor of Qing Dynasty
    • what? -successful military leader by subduing the turkish and mongolian threats -"preserver and restorer" of Chinese culture -relationship with heshen
    • when? 1735-1796
    • where? china
  24. Heshen
    • who? weathiest official in history (eunuch)
    • what? -qianlong fascinated with him -symbol of curruption -unofficial power turns into real power -violation of codes then commits suicide by hanging
    • when? 1750-1799
    • where? china
  25. 100 Days Reforms
    • who? Kang Youwei
    • what? 1.create constitutional monarchy 2.military )best equipment 3.rethink confucianism 4. Mordern university (Beida-only thing to survive the 100 days)
    • when?1898
    • where? china
    • how? work within system
  26. Boxer Uprising
    • Who? men who thought they could perform extraordinary feats
    • what? -response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, tomissionary evangelism. -Cixi invites boxers to beijing to fight west -west wins and cixi fleas beijing (must apologize and pay back)
    • when? 1899-1901
    • where? northern china
  27. Empress Dowager Cixi
Card Set
China 1600-1900
china during the Ming and Qing Dynastys