1. Definition of communication
    the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another.
  2. Identification of the elements of the communication process
    • a. Sender
    • b. Receiver
    • c. Message
    • d. Feedback
    • e. Environment
  3. Description of the modes of communication
    • Verbal
    •  - words

    • Non-verbal
    • - continuous, and it communicates emotional states, interpersonal attitudes, and ourself-concept.
    • - Body language
    • - Touching
    • - Eye contact and facial expressions
    • - Smiling
    • - psychological space
  4. Description of the types of human communication
    • Intrapersonal: conversation you have with yourself
    •  Daydreaming
    •  Dreaming in your sleep
    •  Talking to oneself either internally or out loud
    •  Reading aloud
    •  Repeating what one hears

    • Interpersonal communication is between two or more people.
    •  Face-to-face
    •  By telephone
    •  Through written correspondence (e.g., emails or letters)
  5. Explanation of barriers to communication
    Filters which can block or muffle the message.

    What makes communication complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way. Communication barriers can be thought of as filters. The message leaves the sender, goes through a filter, and then is heard by the receiver. The filter can block or muffle the message.
  6. Barriers to communication
    Physical Barriers: Environmental, Noise, Objects, Distance, Temperature, Physical Health

    Perceptual Factors: Past experience, hidden agendas, stereotypes

    Emotional barriers: Anger, Fear, Surprise

    Cultural and Language Barriers
  7. Describe receiver/sender-oriented messages
    • It is the responsibility of the sender to send a receiver-oriented message and providemessages that the receivers will:
    • - Attend to: Relating the message to the receiver’s personal goals or providing avivid or surprising message element that attracts the attention of the receiver toyour message.

    - Understand: Adapting messages to the learning level of the receiver, providingopportunities for feedback, and adding value to the message content ensures thatthe message will be easy for the receiver to comprehend

    - Remember: Encouraging others to repeat the message, relating the message tothe receiver, and providing a simple summary of the message increases thelikelihood that the message will be remembered

    A sender-oriented message may not be understood by the receiver.

    • The receiver should
    • - indicate understanding if the message is understood or ask for clarification if not.
    • - provide feedback
  8. Importance of non-verbal communication
    - Where verbal and nonverbal messages conflict, nonverbal messages are relied upon more.

    - Nonverbal messages can have different meanings for different people.

    - Nonverbal messages cannot be avoided – even if we do nothing, we communicate.
  9. State the steps of the listening process
    Receiving - hearing

    Attending - giving attention to what was heard

    Understanding - learning what the speaker means

    Responding - a form of feedback that completes the communication process and letsthe sender know that the message was received, attended to, and understood

    Remembering – being able to recall or retain for later use
  10. Identify types of listening
    Active - a process in which the listener makes a conscious effort to listen for the complete message; this is good listening

    Inactive - hearing only the words

    Selective Listening – filtering the message, hearing only what you want to hear
  11. Difference between hearing and listening
    Hearing is a physiological process that occurs when you are in the vicinity ofvibrations in the air and these vibrations impinge on your eardrum.

    Listening involves a five-step process that does something with what was heard.
  12. Benefits of effective listening
    Improves communications - When effective listening is occurring, it makes you a more involved part of the communication process.

    Puts you in control of the situation - When doing interviews, focus groups, etc, you can gain more control of the process by being more aware of what is being said.

    Minimizes conflict - Many conflicts occur because of a breakdown in communication.

    Shows that you care - People are more willing to share when they believe that the listener cares about what is being said.

    Enhances understanding - Effective listening requires that you seek clarity, which cuts down on confusion

    Improves memory - The more focused you are during listening, the better you will retain the information.
  13. Methods to improve listening
    Have a reason or purpose for listening

    Suspend judgment

    Resist distractions (overcoming deterrents)

    Wait before responding

    Seek important themes

    Respond to comments

    • Avoid response blocks:
    • - Evaluation
    • - Unsolicited advice giving
    • - Diagnosing/analyzing
    • - Topping
  14. Definition of feedback
    a. Communication to a person or group providing information as to how their behavior is affecting or influencing you (giving feedback).

    b. A reaction by others as to how your behavior is affecting or influencing them (receiving feedback).
  15. Difference between evaluative/non-evaluative feedback
    • a. Evaluative feedback:
    • (1) Occurs when an individual assumes that he/she can distinguish between right andwrong, or good and bad.
    • (2) Involves judging another against your standards or values.

    b. Non-evaluative feedback occurs when addressing an observable behavior.
  16. guidelines for giving feedback.  Ensure feedback (is)
    describes (non-evaluative) rather than judges (evaluative).

    specific rather than general

    takes into account the needs of both the receiver and the giver (sender) of the feedback.

    analyzed to guarantee clear communication

    solicited rather than imposed.

    directed at a person’s behavior, not at the person

    • directed at behavior the receiver can control
    • - Feedback should focus on sharing information, not giving advice


  17. JoHari window panes
    Open arena: Things I know about myself and others know

    Blind spot: Things I don’t know about myself but the group knows

    Façade: Things I know about myself, but the group doesn’t know

    Unknown: Things that neither the group nor I know about myself
  18. Identify behaviors/actions that cause the panes to move/change size
    • Ask
    • - Feedback solicitation
    • - Self discovery

    • Tell
    • - self-disclosure/exposure
    • - others' observation
  19. Benefits of feedback
    a. Exchange information.

    b. Achieve personal growth.

    c. Provider finds out about self.

    d. Receiver gains insight.

    e. Creates an open environment for effective operational and interpersonalcommunications.

    f. Aids in preparation for the future; not dwelling on the past.
  20. Definition of diversity (overall theme/concept)
    Differences, variety
  21. Definition of inclusion
    action which recognizes and integrates the attributes of the workforce in order to successfully accomplish missions.
  22. Differentiate between the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity and identify why diversity is critical to readiness
    primary dimensions: properties and characteristics that constitute the core of our diverseidentities

    secondary dimensions: additional elements outside the core, some being quite permanent and others receding or changing over time; less visible to others, more changeable, and morevariable in the degree or influence they exert on one’s life.

    Changing U.S. demographics- Current combat missions and terrorism operate among diverse cultures- Increased need for specialized talent- Increased use of collaborative work structures.increased effectiveness, innovation, improved problem solving, greatercohesion, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, competitiveness, and enhancedmission readiness.useful during conflict resolutionsyou can determine if your organizationfosters a climate conducive to support diversity
  23. Identify how the dimensions of diversity exert an impact on the socialization process
    shaping our values, perceptions, priorities, and experiences; form an individual’s self-image; filters through which he or sheviews the rest of the world

    influences our self-image, values, opportunities, and expectations

    give meaning to our lives by contributing to a synergistic, integrated whole

    exert a powerful influence throughout our lifetime

    help shape our values, attitudes, and perceptions – the socialization of our culture and ourselves
  24. Primary dimensions of diversity



    Mental/physical abilities and characteristics


    Sexual orientation
  25. Factors of personal diversity development
    knowledge (head)

    behavior (hand)

    affect (heart)
  26. Identify individual diversity awareness strategies
    Be aware of your own cultural influences and assumptions when communicating withpeople of other cultures

    Do not buy into generalizations, as the behavior and beliefs of people within eachculture can vary considerably, and not all people identify with their cultural orreligious background

    Be wary of judging others’ behaviors and beliefs according to the standards of yourown culture

    Monitor your verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors

    Identify behaviors that enhance or detract from work group readiness
  27. Define conflict and the causes of conflict.
    A disagreement between or among individuals, a fight, a battle, a difference of opinion oridea, a misunderstanding.

    • primary causes
    • - wants or needs differ
    • - values differ
    • - Differing degrees of knowledge expectations
    • - Differences in race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and age
    • - Assumptions/perceptions
  28. What are two things that conflict can be
    Constructive or Destructive
  29. Characteristics of intergroup conflict
    Takes place between two or more groups

    Available resources are perceived as inadequate for all

    Each group tries to overpower the other

    Each group has mutually exclusive goals or values

    Perceptions are inaccurate or illogical
  30. Negotiation skills and their uses
    Diagnosis: The ability to determine the nature of conflict

    Initiation: Influencing someone to change a behavior that may be causing the problem

    Listening: Ability to hear the other’s point of view, listen, reflect, paraphrase, and clarify (very important)
  31. Elements of the conflict model
    Avoidance (lose/lose)

    Accommodating (lose/win)

    Competing (win/lose)

    Compromise (draw)

    Collaboration (win/win)
  32. Outcomes of conflict (eg. win/win)
    lose/lose (Avoidance): withdrawal/denial of problem

    lose/win (Accommodating): surface harmony

    win/lose (Competing): authority, majority rule or persuasive minority settles conflict

    draw (Compromising): each party gives something to meet midway

    win/win (Collaboration): abilities, values, and expertise of all are recognized; each person's position is clear; emphasis is on the group solution
  33. List components of personal and group conflict.



  34. State strategies used to cope with conflict
    • Questions
    • - How important is the relationship?
    • - How important is the incident?
    • - How will I feel if I do/don’t confront it?
    • - What is the likely outcome?

    • Negotiate
    • - Diagnosis: The ability to determine the nature of conflict

    - Initiation: Influencing someone to change a behavior that may be causing the problem

    - Listening: Ability to hear the other’s point of view, listen, reflect, paraphrase, and clarify (very important)
  35. Identify components of problem solving process
    Step 1. Assess (Problem)

    Step 2. Plan (solution)

    Step 3. Implement (solution)

    Step 4. Evaluate (outcome)
  36. Identify the benefits of coping with conflict
    - Deals with reality.

    - Confronts the real problem.

    - Keeps identity and role separate.
  37. Intent vs Impact
    When we do or say something, there is always an impact

    we assume the behavior has the intended consequence

    When the impact communication is negative - for example, someone was hurt oroffended by our action - we may respond to that person based on our intention
  38. Definition of cross-cultural communication
    a process of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one's cultural differences through language, non-verbal gestures, and space relationships. It is also the process by which people express their openness to a cross-cultural experience.

    based on perspectives, practices and products

    distinguishes between stereotypes and generalizations when assessing individuals of different cultures.

    stereotypes assume; ending point

    generalizations wonder; starting point to learn more
  39. Definition of cross-gender communication
    Gender includes the social construction of masculinity and femininity within a cultureand incorporates a person’s biological, psychological, and sociological characteristics.

    Sex refers to a person's biological or physical self. Although sex determines who will bear children, gender accounts for our roles in life and how these life roles affect our communication.
  40. Generational communication styles
    • FOUR Generational Types:
    • 1. Traditionalists (born 1922-1943)
    • – Administrative, policy-oriented, letter of the law. Masters of theexpert opinion, think tanks.

    • 2. Baby Boomers (born 1943-1960)
    • – Megaphone. Brilliant message crafters. Good creators of content that aligns purpose and values with appeal to higher purpose and meaning. Masters of radio and TV delivery.

    • 3. Generation X (born 1960-1980)
    • – Independent. Not connected to an organization; focused on micro-subjects and personal expression of style work. Masters of the internet, blogging, and publishing resources.

    • 4. Millenials (born 1980-2000)
    • – Upbeat, rally together, focused on the activity and approval of theirpeers. Masters of mobile and hand-held devices
  41. Skills to improve communicating across differences
    Listening: Attentive listening is critical to be able to understand meanings, read between the lines, and empathize with the speaker.

    Speaking: Positive speech such as encouragement, affirmation, recognition, phrasing requests clearly, or expressing opinions sensitively will improve communication.  Also, avoiding negative or stereotypical comments and innuendos based on gender, race, age, etc. is critical to communication success.

    Observation: Note people’s dress, body language, interaction, and behavior. Be aware of differences within your own culture and try to understand the roots ofbehaviors. Asking appropriate and thoughtful questions expands your cross difference knowledge.

    Patience: Through patience, respect is won and cross-difference understanding isenhanced.

    Flexibility: Adaptability and open-mindedness are the route to successful communication. Understanding and addressing differences leads to the breaking of barriers, which results in better lines of communication, mutual trust, and creative thinking.
  42. Explain communicating across differences
    communicate properly with people of different ethnicities, backgrounds, cultures, ages, and races

    can be unpredictable, difficultto study, and different for each of us
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