CDO 340 1 Exam Review 2

  1. Language Learning Requires
    • The ability to perceive sequenced acoustic events of short duration.
    • The ability to attend actively to, to be responsive, and to anticipate stimuli.
    • The ability to use symbols.
    • The ability to invent syntax from the language of the environment.
    • Enough mental energy to do all of the above simultaneously.
    • The ability to interact & communicate with others.
  2. the ability perceive sequenced acoustic events of short duration
    being able to perceive sound
  3. ability to actively to, to be resonsive, and to anticioate duration
    ability to hold a sentence in your mind, interpret the sentence coming in, and anticipate more
  4. ability to use symbols
    written language is symbols/symbolic
  5. ability to invent syntax from the language of the environment
    being able to come up with the meaning of the word based on the context that it is used in
  6. four steps of information processing
    • attention - automatic activation of the brin orientation that focuses awareness and focus
    • discrimination - the ability to identify stimuli from a field of competing stimuli
    • organization - categorization of info for storage and retrieval
    • memory - storing and retrieval of info
  7. role of working memory in information processing
    • an active system for temporarily storing and manipulating info needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks (learning, reasoning, comprehension)
    • 7 plus or minus 2
  8. controlled processing
    • performed consciously and intentionally uses extensive brain resources
    • limits how much you can process
  9. automatic processing
    • inforation processes operate automatically
    • supports access to high levels of function
    • allows management of sophisticated langauage tasks (speaking, reading, writing)
  10. shallow, botoom level processing
    • less complex stimuli
    • perceptual analysis
  11. deep, top level processing
    • elaborate stimuli
    • associating new information with knowledge already stored
  12. Specific language impairment
    • significant limitations in language functioning that cannot be attributed to deficits in hearing, oral structure and function or general intelligence.
    • Cognition is normal, ONLY language skills are impaired
  13. Identifying SLI
    • performance IQ above 85
    • a low verbal IQ
    • in most, expressive language is more impaired than recepive language
    • auditory processing disorder may be present (deficit in verbal working memory)
  14. Language Learning Disability (LLD)
    Learning disability is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition & use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to CNS dysfunction, & may occur across the lifespan. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, & social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability.
  15. How are SLI and LLD similar ?
    They both can be manifested in a difficulty with language in many forms and often are associated with an IQ that is higher than their actual abilities.
  16. Speech / language characteristics of children with SLI
    • expressive and/or receptive
    • typically have a language delay
    • general language deficits: learning language rules, registering diffferent contexts for langauge, constructing word-referent associations for vocab growth
  17. Cognitive referencing
    • aka - discrepancy criterion
    • most common criteria used in north america to identify LLD and SLI
    • Cognition is used as the point of reference against skills in some other area.
    • Looking for a discrepancy between intellectual functioning and achievement.
    • In SLI is a discrepancy between intellectual functioning and language. In LD it is a discrepancy between intellectual functioning and one of the following: listening/speaking, reading, writing, math, or reasoning.
  18. What role does cognitive referencing play in
    traditional definitions of disability?
    • The idea that cognition is the point of reference against skills in some other area is a very old and traditional idea.
    • Public law 94-142 requires the use of an IQ score to identify someone as disabled
    • Looking for a discrepancy between achievement and intellectual functioning
    • Cognition drives language and it is a one way street – this is an OLD idea that we should NOT agree with or follow. This causes children to be disqualified if there is not enough of a gap between a child’s cognition and their language abilities. There language abilities must be below their cognition in order to qualify, which disqualifies so many children.
    • Research says that we can make huge gains in language abilities with an SLP even if their cognition is below.
  19. What factors play a role in the diagnosis of
    mental retardation?
    • substantial limitations in present functioning
    • significant subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more adaptive areas
    • manifests before age 18    
    • The language disorder can be the single most important factor in the disorder.
  20. What is the IQ cut-off score for identifying
    mental retardation?
    • Mild 52-68  89%
    • Moderate 36-51   6%
    • Severe 20-35   3.5%
    • Profound 19 and below   1.5%
  21. What does the phrase “deficits in adaptive
    behavior” refer to besides academic learning
    • communication, self help, self care, basic life skills, leisure, health, and safety
    • These things enhance the definition to make it clearer as to who needs services.
  22. Describe speech and language in relation to cognition in MR.
    • Some of language needs attributed to low intellectual functioning
    • The language disorder can be the single most important factor in the disorder.
    • Research says that we can make huge gains in language abilities with an SLP even if their cognition is below.
  23. Why is cognitive referencing problematic in relation to speech and language services for children with MR?
    Cognition-language relationship is inconsistentlanguage = cognition (50%) this has resulted in children not qualifying for SLP services language comprehension & production < cognition (25%) language comprehension = cognition but language production is lower than both (25%)
  24. Outline the language characteristics in MR.
    • Pragmatics
    • -Gestural & intentional developmental patterns similar to normal but delayed gestural requesting.
    • -May take less dominant conversational role
    • Semantics
    • -More concrete word meanings & slow vocabulary growth
    • -More limited use of a variety of semantic units
    • Syntax/Morphology
    • -Same sequence of general sentence development as children developing typically
    • -Shorter, less complex sentences
    • -Rely on less mature forms (more capable)
    • -Same order of morpheme development as preschoolers developing typically
    • Comprehension
    • -Poorer receptive language
    • -Poorer sentence recall
    • -More reliance on context to extract meaning
  25. Processing Factors of Children with Mental Retardation
    • Attention
    • -difficulty scanning & selecting stimuli to which to attend
    • Discrimination
    • -difficulty identifying relevant stimulus cues Organization
    • -Individuals with MMMR have difficulty developing organizational strategies to aid in storage & retrieval
    • Memory
    • -Poorer recall
    • If you give them a purpose or reading, it will improve their ability to comprehend.
  26. PDD-NOS
    • pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified
    • this is a milder form of autism
  27. Language characteristics of children with autism
    • Pragmatics – Key!
    • Difficulty with joint attention
    • Gaze aversion
    • Difficulties with conversation
    • Limited communication functions
    • Echolalia & Perseveration
    • Asocial monologues
  28. Language characteristics for childre with autism
    Other than pragmatics
    • Semantics
    • -Limited vocabulary – know really surface level meanings of words Word retrieval difficulties & difficulty with questions
    • Syntax/Morphology
    • -Morphological difficulties
    • -Superficial construction of sentence forms
    • -Less complex sentences
    • Phonology is least effected & variable needs
    • Comprehension is impaired
    • -Especially in connected discourse

    People with autism do not know how to use their semantics and syntax flexibly to say the same thing different because they only have a shallow understanding of the sentence make up and definitions.
  29. Range of IQs for children with autism
    • More than half have IQs below 50
    • Approximately 25% are between 50-70
    • Approximately 25% are above 71
  30. Echolalia
    when someone repeats all or part of something that they have heard. Ex) a person being able to play out the entire “The Price is Right” show, but they have little understanding of the words that they are using.
  31. Perseveration
    when someone does not want to change the topic, but a topic change is needed.
  32. Asocial monologues
    talking to yourself / talking for you. Not meant to be a communication exchange, just a person talking for themselves.
  33. Hyperlexia
    Being able to fluently read, but they have no comprehension.
  34. What is attention deficit hyperactivity
    • A behavioral disorder characterized by overactivity and an inability to attend for more than a very short period
    • Marked by inattention, impusivity, & hyperactivity
  35. How is ADHD related to other disorders?
    • Up to 45% of children with ADHD have at least one other psychiatric disorder
    • Between 20-30% of children with ADHD have at least one type of LD
    • Up to 65% eventually have a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder
  36. What types of acquired brain injury, and from
    what causes, are observed in children?
  37. TBI
    Traumatic Brain Injury (Hypoxia)
  38. CVA
    Cerebral Vascular Incident
  39. Diffuse Brain Injury
    • occurs through out the brain
    • deficits are more sever in this area
    • ex) car accidents
  40. Focal Brain Injury
    • occurs in one specific area
    • better prognosis
    • ex) having swelling on one point of the brain
  41. Encephalopathy
    swelling on the brain
  42. Outline the speech and language characteristics
    in brain injury
    • Pragmatics
    • -Difficulty organizing ideas, staying on-topic, making appropriate comments
    • Form
    • -Sentences lengthy & fragmented
    • Semantics
    • -Difficulty with word retrieval
    • Comprehension
    • -Difficulties linked to inattention and processing speed
    • -Auditory & text comprehension impaired
    • -Difficulty with sentence comprehension (not using syntax to assign meaning).
    • Expressive Speech or Language Problems
    • -Difficulty forming phonemes, words, sentences
    • -Dysarthria or cognitive processes impaired
    • Receptive Language Problems
    • -Inability to follow-directions, process auditory information
    • Cognitive-Communicative Disorders
    • -Deficits in linguistic & non-linguistic cognitive processes (e.g., attention & impulsivity)

    There can be difficulty at every language level because there is such a huge range of severity
  43. More language characteristics of children with Brain Injury
    • Expressive Speech or Language Problems
    • Difficulty forming phonemes, words, sentences Dysarthria or cognitive processes impaired
    • Receptive Language Problems
    • Inability to follow-directions, process auditory information
    • Cognitive-Communicative Disorders
    • Deficits in linguistic & non-linguistic cognitive processes (e.g., attention & impulsivity)
    • These people may have two type of dysarthria at least.
    • These people can be more severe and over more processes.
    • Language output, attention, perception, impulsivity, disorganized thinking, poor problem solving and judgment.
  44. What environmental factors are associated with
    neglect and abuse?
    • Negative social environment
    • Medical & health problems
    • Biological factors
  45. Outline the speech and language characteristics
    in children who are abused and neglected.
    • Not the direct cause of the communication problem, but context influences development
    • The longest term affects to a child typically occur after emotional abuse rather than physical.

    • nAll aspects of language affected
    • Less talkative
    • Fewer conversational skills
    • Shorter utterances & conversations
    • Deficient verbal & reading ability
Card Set
CDO 340 1 Exam Review 2
Exam Review 2