- a social tool
- dynamic process
decrsibe the focus of the functional language approach
- intervention needs to move beyond language itself to include better communication
- no longer view chid as solely the problem
- tigh structure
- trainer oriented
- child as passive learner
- uses stimulus - response reinforcement model
- problems with generalization
- often forgets pragmatics
- child has more control
- decreases structure
- attempts to mirror language-learning environment of typically developing children
- better overall results
- longer mean length of utterance
- better behavior
IN funcational approach, how are training targets and items selected?
- they are based on needs and interests of each child within environments that are meaningful, authentis, motivating, and interesting
- goal is to increase effectiveness of child-initiated com
- must be functional and useful to child
- must relate to child's prior knowledge
- relationship between communicative partner and form and meaning of language being used
- services as the organizing framework of language
when we consider pragmatics...
- focus shifts from treatment of symptoms tot he process of communication
- we move from the entity pproach (discrete bits) to systems/holistic approach (famr toys) and think about all the aspects
ongoing interactive process od clients and of their newly acquired language feature with the communication environment
- child with LI induces language rule from examples and actual use
- affected by targets choosen for training and by specific training items
- "what" aspects of language we are working on
- child uses new feature within everyday communication
- facilitated when training and natural environments are similar
- "where" we are working on language
considerations for context generalization
- language facilitators
- training cues
- location of training
- best generalization - consequences related directly to language utterance and communication function of child
- avoid empty priase
- use response modes that demonstrate acceptance and redirection of child's utterace and maintain conversational flow
- use daily activities as your frame
incidental teaching approach
training in environments where the language is used
when we congratulate them in a real way that celebrates their communication
How might structured, direct instructional approaches be used together with a more conversational approach?
- direct instructions may be helpful for a time (briefly) early on, but it is not good for pragmatics and semantics.
- It does work for syntax and morphology.
- You must have an action plan for generalization if you decide to use this method.