What do Glands produce?
They produce chemical secretions needed for normal body functioning.
What are the two types of Glands and what do they mean?
- Endocrine – ductless, secretions pour directly into vascular system
- Exocrine – has a duct associated it with it. Secretions empty into various locations
- Produces watery fluid that lubricates the eye.
- Location – superiorly and laterally in orbit.
- Fluid flows inferiorly, and medially, enters tiny opening in medial canthus. Nasolacrimal duct drains into superior portion of nasal cavity.
What are the 3 major salivary glands?
Name the minor salivary glands
- Buccal, labial, lingual, soft palate, hard palate, floor of mouth
- Von Ebner’s glands – associated with the circumvallate papilla of tongue
- Produces only 25 % of salivary volume. Serous secretion (watery)
- Duct – called Stensen’s duct
- Nerve innervation – IX; Glossopharnygeal. Facial nerve goes through the gland
- Blood supply – branches from external carotid artery.
- Lymph drainage – deep parotid lymph nodes
Name some reasons the Parotid Gland would swell.
- Mumps - Viral infection of parotid gland. Swelling; facial pain. Vaccination - MMR
- Salivary gland tumor
- Blockage of Stensen’s Duct
- Second largest salivary gland
- Produces 60-65 % of the salivary volume
- Mixed salivary gland – both serous and mucous
- Duct – Wharton’s Duct; opens at the sublingual caruncle under tongue
- Nerve innervation – Efferent (parasympathetic ) fibers of chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve) and from submandibular ganglion of facial nerve.
- Blood Supply – Branches from facial and lingual arteries
- Smallest of major salivary glands
- Produces 10 % of salivary volume
- Mixed secretions, but mostly mucous
- Nerve innervation – Same as submandibular
- Blood Supply – Sublingual and submental arteries (small branches from lingual and mental arteries respectively)
When ducts of minor salivary glands are injured and become blocked is called, what?
What is Ranula?
Injury to major salivary glands causing blockage
- Largest endocrine gland
- Secretes thyroxine – hormone that stimulates metabolic rate
- Enlargement – Goiter
- Four small endocrine glands
- Produce parathyroid hormone – regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood
- Part of immune system; T-cell lymphocytes mature in this gland.
- Grows in size until puberty; then begins to shrink.
Cell body, dendrite, and axon
Bundle of neural processes outside the CNS, and in the Peripheral Nervous system
Collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
What is an Afferent nerve?
Sensory nerve → CNS Analyzes
What is an Efferent nerve?
Motor nerve → Periphery, muscles effects
Difference between the positive charge outside the nerve membrane and the negative charge inside nerve membrane; measured in millivolts. Resting potential is - 70 mV (negative 70 mV)
- Outside of nerve membrane is high in Na+
- Inside of nerve membrane is high in K+
- Nerve stimulated, gates open, Na+ rushes in.
- Depolarization occurs; i.e., becomes less negative by + charges rushing in
- So, nerves goes from - 70 mV → + 40 mV
- Current begins to flow from the depolarized area to the adjacent resting area of -70 mV.
- Flow begins down nerve – Action potential or impulse propagation
Junction between two neurons, or between a neuron and an effector organ
CNS = ?
Brain + Spinal Cord
Two cerebral hemispheres. Coordinates sensory data and motor functions, intelligence, reasoning, learning and memory
muscle coordination, muscle tone and posture and balance
What are the parts of the Brainstem?
Medulla, pons, and midbrain
Regulation of heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction (blood pressure), reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing and hiccupping)
Connects medulla with cerebellum; *** cranial nerves V and VII cell bodies are found here
relay stations for hearing, vision, and motor pathways
Thalamus and hypothalamus
Central relay point for incoming nerve impulses
Homeostasis: thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure, links nervous system to endocrine glands
The Peripheral Nervous System divides into what two systems?
- Afferent Nervous System (Sensory)
- Efferent Nervous System (Motor)
What are the two branches of the Efferent Nervous System?
- Somatic Nervous System-All nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors. External sense organs are receptors, but the muscle fibers and glands associated with them are affected by this system.
- Autonomic Nervous System- Operates without conscious control
Name the 2 divisions of Autonomic Nervous System.
- Sympathetic Nervous System “Fight or flight responses” In general, speeds things up; heart rate, blood pressure, dilation of eyes; One exception is salivary gland production; *DECREASES
- Parasympathetic Nervous System "Rest and digest" In general, slows things down; One exception is salivary gland production; * INCREASES
Spinal nerves from the spinal column (Numbers and Locations)
- 8- Cervical
- 12 -Thoracic
- 5- Lumbar
- 5- Sacral
- 1 -Coccygeal
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory -Sensory only; smell; nerves enters skull through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Olfactory bulbs → olfactory tracts → brain
Cranial Nerve II
Optic -Sensory only; sight; retina → optic nerve → optic chiasma → optic tracts → brain
Cranial Nerve III
Occulomotor -Motor Only; muscles of the eye
Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear -Motor only; muscle of the eye
Cranial Nerve V
- Trigeminal -A mixed nerve – both motor and sensory
- Three Divisions: V1 – Ophthalmic Nerve (Division) – Sensory Only; exits skull through the superior orbital fissure
- V2 – Maxillary Nerve (Division) – Sensory only; exits skull through foramen rotundum
- V3 – Mandibular Nerve (Division) – Mixed; motor and sensory; exits skull through foramen ovale
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens -Motor Only; muscle of the eye
Cranial Nerve VIII
Auditory/Vestibulocochlear -Sensory only; hearing and balance
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal – Mixed (both); motor – stylpharyngeus muscle and parotid gland; sensory – skin around ear and tongue (taste and general sensation)
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus – Mixed (both); motor – muscles of soft palate, pharynx, larynx and thorax and absominal organs; Sensory – skin around ear and epiglottis (taste)
Cranial Nerve XI
Accessory – Motor only; two muscles in neck, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius, soft palate, pharynx
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal – Motor only; tongue muscles