Chapter 7: The Late Antiquity and Emergence of the Medieval World

  1. The Reign of Justinian

    • a.      Determined to reestablish Roman Empire in entire Mediterranean world and attempted to reconquered west in 533
    • b.      His army
    •                                                               i.      Under Belisarius was formidable force
    • 1.      Sailed to North Africa, destroyed Vandals in two battles, occupied Sicily, defeated Ostrogoths in 535
  2. The Reign of Justinian 
    Criticism and Achievemnts
    • a.      Criticized for overextending resources and bankrupting empire
    •                                                               i.      Theory: plague actually caused damage
    • b.      Achieved goals before death
    •                                                               i.      Restored imperial Mediterranean world
    • 1.      Conquest was fleeting
    • 3 years after death: Lombards entered Italy
  3. The REign of Justinian
    Roman Law
    • a.      Justinian codified Roman Law
    •                                                               i.      Eastern Empire was heir to materials connected to development of Roman law
    • 1.      Laws passed by senate and assemblies, legal commentaries of jurists, decisions of praetors, and edicts of emperors
    • 2.      To accomplish goal
    • a.      Authorized Trebonian (jurist) to make systematic compilation of imperial edicts
    •                                                                                                                                   \
  4. The REign of Justinian
    Code of Law
    •                                                                                                                                  i.      Code of Law, the first part of the Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) in 529
    • 1.      Four years later, two other parts
    • a.      Digest: collection of Roman jurist writings
    • b.      Institutes
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Summary of principles of Roman law that could be used as textbook
    • c.       Fourth part was Novels, a compilation of most important NEW edicts issued during his reign
    • 2.      His codification became basis of imperial law until end of empire in 1453
    • a.      Written in Latin and used in west
    • Became basis of legal system of all of continental Europe
  5. Intellectual LIfe Under Justinian
    •                                                               i.      Influenced by traditions of Classical civilization
    • 1.      Tried to preserve ancient Greek work while basing own literature on Classical models
    • 2.      Literary achievements were historical and religious works
  6. Intellectual Life under Justinian
    • Historian 
    • 1.      Secretary to Belisarius
    • 2.      Wars
    • a.      First hand account of Justinian’s wars of reconquest in w. Mediterranean and wars against Persians in the east
    • b.      Modeled after Thucydides
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Features vivid descriptions of battle scenes, objectivity, judgment
    • 3.      Secret History
    • a.      Mostly scandalous gossip
    • b.      Scathing attack on Justinian and wife for misdeeds
  7. Theodora Background
    •                                                               i.      Daughter of “keeper of bears”
    •                                                             ii.      Followed mom and became actress and worked as prostitute
    •                                                           iii.      25, met Justinian
    • 1.      Emperor Justin changed law to allow aristocratic senator to marry actress
    • She became empress when Emperor Justin died
  8. Theodora Impact
    •                                                               i.      Influenced Justinian in both church and state affairs
    • 1.      532: two factions of charioteer supporters in Constantinople joined and rioted against emperor and revolted as they turned the city
    • 2.      Justinian wanted to flee, but Theodora encouraged him to stay and fight, resulting in the death of protesters and an end to the Nika Revolt
  9. a.      Building Program
    •                                                               i.      Riots destroyed Constantinople
    •                                                             ii.      Justinian rebuilt and gave appearance that would last almost 1000 years
    •                                                           iii.      Earlier, Theodosius II made defensive wall to protect city
    • 1.      City dominated by palace complex, a huge arena known as Hippodrome and churches
    •                                                           iv.      Justinian added buildings
    • 1.      Roads, bridges, walls, public baths, law courts, reservoirs, hospitals, schools, monasteries, churches
    • a.      34 churches
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hagia Sophia, the Church of the Holy Wisdom
    • 1.      Designed by Greek architect
    • 2.      Center has four huge piers crowned by dome
    • 3.      42 windows around base of dome
    • a.      Light= reminder of God
    • 2.      Royal palace complex, Hippodrome, and Hagia Sophia were three greatest buildings in Constantinople
    • 3.      Last was huge amphitheater
    • a.      Main events: chariot races
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      24 in one day
    • 4.      Political significance within crowds in Hippodrome
    • a.      Blues and Greens
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Loss of race= bloody riots= threat
  10. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    • a.      Justinian’s death left Eastern Roman Empire with problems
    •                                                               i.      Too distant territories to protect
    •                                                             ii.      Empty treasury
    •                                                           iii.      Smaller population after plague
    •                                                           iv.      Threats
    • b.      Heraclius reigned during numerous Persian and Slavic attacks
  11. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    New system and Restoration
    • a.      New system of defense, the theme, which combined civilian and military offices in the hands of the same person
    •                                                               i.      Civil governor also military leader
    • 1.      Fostered increased militarization of empire
    • b.      Restored Mediterranean empire= impossible
    •                                                               i.      Ignored Latin west
    •                                                             ii.      Threats strengthened development
  12. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire

    Islam and Northern Frontier
    • a.      Islam
    •                                                               i.      Most serious challenge that unified Arab tribes and created new force
    • 1.      Took provinces and conquered area of old Persian Empire
    • 2.      Attempt to besiege Constantinople failed due to Greek fire
    • a.      Petroleum-based compound with quicklime and sulfur that was equivalent to flame throwers
    • b.      Problems along northern frontier
    •                                                               i.      Asiatics known as Bulgars defeated eastern Roman forces and possessed Danube Valley
  13. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    Byzantine Empire in the Eighth Century
    8th Century
    • a.      8th century: Eastern Roman Empire diminished to eastern Mediterranean state
    •                                                               i.      External challengesà internal repercussions
    • 1.      Byzantine Empire created
    • b.      Byzantine Empire in the Eighth Century
    •                                                               i.      Greek State
    • 1.      Latin not used as Greek became empire’s official language
    •                                                             ii.      Christian state
    • 1.      Artistic talent in construction of churches, church ceremonies, and church decoration
    • 2.      Spiritual principles permeated Byzantine art
    • 3.      Importance of religionà disputes
    • 4.      Use of religious images, i.e. icons, became dominant and accused of idolatry
    • a.      Argument: helped illiterates understand religion
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Did not stop iconoclasts, opponents of icons
    • b.      Iconoclasm played role in other religions and reformations
  14. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century
     Leo III
    •                                                               i.      Leo III outlawed icons
    • 1.      Monks and others resisted
    • 2.      Popes opposed to iconoclastic edicts, which caused dissent between popes and emperors
    • a.      Byzantine rulers reversed stand on use of images, but damage already done to unity
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Facilitated division between Roman Catholicism and Greek Orthodoxy
  15. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    - Byzantine Empire in the 8th Century
    •                                                               i.      Emperor occupied crucial position in Byzantine state
    • 1.      Chosen by God
    • 2.      Crowned in sacred ceremonies
    • 3.      Absolute power and limited in practice only by deposition or assassination
    • 4.      Exercised control over both church and state
    • 5.      Emperor, clergy, and civic officials bound together in service of preservation of true faith—Orthodox Christianity
    • 6.      Spent a lot of energy on war and preparations for war
    • a.      Lit included instructions on war
    • b.      Armies well trained with latest weapons
    • c.       Preferred use of diplomacy rather than fight
  16. Byzantine Empire in the Eighth Century
    •                                                               i.      Influence on western world was significant
    • 1.      Images of Roman imperial state lived on in Byzantium
    • 2.      Legal system of west owed much to Justinian
    • 3.      Byzantine Empire protected west from incursions
  17. I.                   From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
    Life in Constantinople
    • a.      Life in Constantinople
    •                                                               i.      Largest city in Europe
    •                                                             ii.      Center of an empire and a special Christian city
    •                                                           iii.      City under God and Mary’s protection
    •                                                           iv.      Greatest commercial center
    • 1.      Chief entrepot for exchange of products between west and east
    • 2.      Trade enabled prosperity
    • a.      Carried on by foreign merchants
    • b.      Silk, spices, jewelry, wheat, furs, flax, honey, etc.
    • 3.      Imported raw materials used for local industries
    • a.      State had monopoly on production of silk
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Demand made it most lucrative product
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Chapter 7: The Late Antiquity and Emergence of the Medieval World