Chapter 7: Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World

  1. Church Fathers
    First one
    • a. Saint Augustine (354-430)
    •   i. North African professor of rhetoric at Milan who became bishop of Hippo
    •   ii. Confessions
    •     1. 397
    •     2. Self-portrait of the history of a heart, an account of his personal and spiritual experiences
    •          a. Struggle finding God until converted at 32
    • iii. The City of God
    •     1. Christian philosophy of government and history
    •     2. Ideal relations between the City of God and the City of the World
    •         a. Loved God= City of God (Heaven)
    •         b. City of World necessary although earthly society imperfect and insecure
    •                 i. Duty of rulers to curb instincts of sinful and maintain peace for Christians
    •     3. Said secular government and authority were necessary in Christian life
    • iv. Established view on sexual desire
    •     1. Celibacy
    •     2. If unable, marriage enables sex with a purpose-->children
  2. Church Fathers 
    Second One
    • a.     
    • St. Jerome (345-420)

    • i.     
    • Master of Latin prose

    • ii.     
    • Dreamt of Jesus as judgeà converted

    • iii.     
    • Found compromise by purifying literature of pagan
    • world and using it to further Christian faith

    • iv.     
    • Greatest scholar among Latin

    • 1.     
    • Translated Old and New Testaments into Latin

    • a.     
    • Latin Vulgate, or common text

    • i.     
    • Standard edition for Church
  3. The Power of the POpe
    • a.     
    • Petrine Supremacy: doctrine that bishops should hold
    • preeminent position in church

    • b.     
    • Jesus gave Peter the keys to the kingdom

    • i.     
    • His successors were “vicars of Christ” and bishops

    • c.      
    • Bishops began using papa, “father” (pope)

    • i.     
    • Pope Leo I portrayed self as heir of Peter
  4. Church and State
    • a.      Roman emperors became Christians and played significant role in church affairs
    •                                                               i.      Viewed self as God’s representatives on earth
    • 1.      Built churches
    • 2.      Influenced structure of church
    • 3.      Involved in church government and doctrinal controversies
    • b.      While emperors occupied in church, bishops involved in imperial government
    •                                                               i.      Served as advisers to emperors
    •                                                             ii.      Decline of imperial ruleà bishops independent political role
  5. Church and State
    Ambrose of Milan
    • a.      Created image of ideal Christian bishop
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Defend independence of church against tendency of imperial officials to oversee church policy
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      When Theodosius I wanted to kill many citizens for disobedience, Ambrose denounced it and refused the emperor t take part in church ceremonies
    • 1.      Theodosius did penance
  6. Church and State
    Weakness of political authorities
    •                                                               i.      Weakness of political authorities also allowed church independence
    • 1.      Germanic Kingdoms:
    • a.      Kings controlled churches and bishops
    • 2.      In Italy
    • a.      Claimed power the same as secular authorities
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      E.g.: Pope Leo I gained credit for Attila’s withdrawal, which as probably due more to plague than papal persuasion
  7. Church and State
    Pope Gelasius I
    • 1.      Pope Gelasius I (492-496)
    • a.      Two ruling powers
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Spiritual and temporal with different functions
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Church higher authority because all men must look to church for salvation
  8. Pope Gregory the Great
    • a.      Acceptance of bishops as head of church, but no agreement on extent of papal power
    • b.      Gregory the Great enabled church to play prominent role in civilizing Germans and aiding in emergence of new European Civilization
    • c.       Assumed direction of Rome and surrounding territories, which suffered from struggles of Germanic tribes (Lombards/ Ostrogothic-Byzantine)
    •                                                               i.      Made Rome and surroundings into administrative unit called Papal States
    • 1.      Provided for defense of Rome against Lombards
    • 2.      Established government for Rome
    • 3.      Fed people
  9. Pope Gregory the Great cont. 
    • a.      Also pursued policy of extending papal authority over Christian church in west
    •                                                               i.      Intervened in ecclesiastical conflicts throughout Italy
    •                                                             ii.      Corresponded with Frankish rulers
    •                                                           iii.      Initiated efforts of missionaries to convert England to Christianity
    •                                                           iv.      Active in converting pagans
    • Monastic movement was what helped
  10. Monks and their Missions
    • a.      Monk sought to live life free from world, cut off from human society, in order to pursue ideal of godliness or total dedication will of God
    • b.      Monasticism based on life of hermit who left society to pursue spirituality
    •                                                               i.      St. Anthony: Egyptian peasant who gave up land and pursued holiness in desert
    •                                                             ii.      St. Simeon the Stylite lived 3 decades in basket atop a 60 ft. pillar
    • c.       View: Martyrà monk who died and achieved spiritual life
    • d.      Soon found selves unable to live in solitude
    •                                                               i.      Feats of holiness were attractiveà monastic communities 
  11. Monks and their Missions
    Benedictine MOnasticism
    •                                                               i.      St. Benedict of Nursia
    • 1.      Established fundamental form of monastic life in w. Christian church
    • a.      Rules rejected ascetic ideas of eastern monasticism, which emphasized fasting and self-infliction in favor for moderation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Moderation: poverty, chastity, obedience
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Day divided into prayer and labor
    • 1.      Private meditation and reading
    • 2.      Gathered 7 times for common prayer and psalms
    • 2.      Monastery ruled by abbot
    • a.      Complete authority over monks
  12. Monks and Their MIssion
    Monks as New heroes
    • a.      Women sought to dedicate themselves to God
    •                                                               i.      First monastic rules produced by Caesarius of Arles for his sister
    • 1.      Rigid cloistering of female religious= nuns
    • b.      Monks became new heroes of Christian civilization
    •                                                               i.      Dedication became highest ideal of Christian life and spread religion
  13. Monks and their MIsssion
    Irish Monks as MIssionaries
    •                                                               i.      Ireland beyond Roman reach
    •                                                             ii.      St. Patrick
    • 1.      Kidnappedà escapedà converted
    •                                                           iii.      Irish Christianity
    • 1.      Different from Roman
    • 2.      Absence of Roman gov’t models led to different church organization
    • a.      Instead of bishoprics, monasteries were fundamental units
    • b.      Abbots had more control than bishops
    • 3.      Irish monasticism
    • a.      Strongly ascetic
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Monks fasted, prayed, meditated under extreme privations
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Repented regularly
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Led to voluntary exiles
    • b.      Gave rise to use of penitentials
    • c.       Love of learning
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Fostered education and absorbed Latin/ Greek culture
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Preserving Classical Latin
    • d.      Produced manuscripts illustrated with abstract geometric patterns
    • e.       Became fervid missionaries and began process of converting Angles and Saxons
    • f.       New monasteries became learning centers
  14. Monks and their MIssion
    Conversion of England
    •                                                               i.      Pope Gregory the Great tried to convert England, using St. Augustine
    • 1.      England occupied by Germanic kingdoms
    • 2.      Converted King Ethelbert of Kent and subjects
    • 3.      Temples became churches
    • 4.      Old pagan feasts= new names in Christina calendar
    •                                                             ii.      Roman Christianity encountered Irish Christianity
    • 1.      Gradual fusion after arguments
    • a.      Still, England Church retained some Irish features
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Monastic culture with emphasis on learning and missionary work
    • b.      English monks journeyed to convert
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Boniface converted pagan Germans, but later killed by Frisians
  15. Women and MOnasticism
    •                                                               i.      Double monasteries, where monks and nuns lived in separate houses, but attended mass together were found in English and Frankish kingdoms
    • 1.      Followed common rules under abbess
    • a.      Belonged to royal houses
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      St. Hilda
    • 1.      Abbess responsible for giving learning important role in monastery life
    • 2.      Educated five future bishops
    • 3.      Females were offered opportunities for learning
    •                                                             ii.      Nuns played role in spread
  16. Path of Celibacy
    •                                                               i.      Some women pursued path to holiness
    • 1.      Cloisters allowed celibacy
    • a.      Created new image of human body
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Refusal to have sex was victory over fleshy desires
    •                                                             ii.      Cult of virginity moved beyond religious
    • 1.      Groups of women studied importance and benefits of celibacy
  17. Christian Intellectual Life in the Germanic Kingdoms
    • a.        
    •                                                               i.      Christian scholar who served as official to Ostrogothic king Theodoric
    •                                                             ii.      Withdrew from public life after Theodoric’s death
    •                                                           iii.      Divine and Human Readings
    • 1.      A collection of the literature of both Christian and pagan antiquity
    • a.      Accepted advice of earlier Christina intellectuals to make use of Classical works while treasuring Scriptures
    • b.      Followed works of late ancient authors in placing secular knowledge into categories of seven liberal arts, divided into two major groups:
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      the trivium, consisting of grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, logic
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      quadrivium
    • arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music 
  18. Christian Intellectual Life in the Germanic Kingdoms 
    •                                                               i.      Scholar and product of Christian Anglo-Saxon England
    •                                                             ii.      Entered monastery young and stayed there
    •                                                           iii.      Ecclesiastical History of the English People
    • 1.      Product of flourishing English ecclesiastical and monastic culture in eighth century
    • 2.      History of England begins with coming of Christianity to Britain
    •                                                           iv.      Had remarkable sense of history
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Chapter 7: Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World