Psy 255- Chapter 6

  1. Descriptions of how individual consumers differ according to specific trait or patterns of behavior are called _____.

    e.individual lifestyle variables
    A. individual difference variables
  2. _____ is the totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment.

    C. personality
  3. In which approach to studying personality are behaviors assessed at a number of points in time?

    a.multi-attribute approach
    b.aggregation approach
    c.linear approach
    d.time-series approach
    e.psychoanalytic approach
    b. aggregation approach
  4. Which psychologist advocated the psychoanalytic approach to personality?

    E. Freud
  5. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, which personality element focuses on pleasure-seeking and immediate gratification?

    A. id
  6. Which of the following motivates a person to focus on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain?

    A. pleasure principle
  7. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, the superego _____.

    B. works against the id by motivating behavior that matches societal norms and expectations
  8. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, which element works largely in accordance with the reality principle?

    D. ego
  9. Which consumer research utilized tools such as depth interviews and focus groups to improve understanding of inner motives and needs?

    D. motivational research
  10. Which approach to personality focuses on specific consumer traits as motivators of various consumer behaviors?

    A. trait approach
  11. A distinguishable characteristic that describes one’s tendency to act in relatively consistent manner is called a(n) _____.

    A. trait
  12. Which of the following is a “variable-centered” approach that focuses on particular variables, or traits, that exist across a number of consumers?

    E. nomotheic perspective
  13. Which approach focuses on the total person and the uniqueness of his or her psychological makeup rather than focusing on one trait across many individuals?

    B. idiographic perspective
  14. In which approach is the focus of the researcher on one particular trait, such as need for cognition, rather than on a combination of traits?

    e.uni-trait approach
    C. single-trait approach
  15. Which trait represents the tendency for consumers to focus on maximizing what is received from a transaction as compared to what is given?

    A. value consciousness
  16. Which trait refers to the extent to which material goods are important in a consumer’s life?

    E. materialism
  17. Which of the following is a dimension of materialism? 

    c.value consciousness
    b. envy
  18. The degree to which a consumer is open to new ideas and buying new products, services, or experiences early in their introduction is referred to as _____.

    d. innovativeness
  19. Which trait refers to the degree to which consumers enjoy engaging in effortful cognitive information processing?

    C. need for cognition
  20. Which trait may be defined as an enduring tendency to strive to be better than others?

    A. competiveness
  21. A tendency of the wealthy to flaunt their material possessions as a way of displaying their social class is called _____.

    E. materialistic consumption
  22. Which trait reflects the tendency of a consumer to exhibit restraint when facing purchases and using resources?

    E. frugality
  23. Which trait reflects a tendency for consumers to take excessive pride in themselves, including their appearance and accomplishments?

    a.trait vanity
    a. trait vanity
  24. All of the following are dominant traits proposed in the five-factor model (FFM) approach EXCEPT _____

    D. frugality
  25. All of the following are criticisms of the trait approach to studying personality EXCEPT _____.

    B. It is impossible to objectively assign a personality trait score to an individual consumer.
  26. A relatively new approach to researching consumers, which combines personality theory and motivation is the _____ approach.

    E. personology
  27. All of the following are typical brand personality dimensions EXCEPT _____.

    A. conscientiousness
  28. When Honda first introduced the Odyssey, it’s offering in the mini-van category, it was promoted as the “Honda of mini-vans.”  Honda was building off of its reputation for marketing reliable and dependable automobiles.  Which brand personality dimension does this illustrate?

    B. competence
  29. The finding that consumers who experience significant life events at approximately the same age are greatly influenced by the events is known as the _____ effect.

    A. cohort
  30. The relationship between consumer and brand has been described in terms of _____. and passion
    e.all of these choices   
    e. all of these choices
  31. The ways consumers live and spend their time and money is known as consumer _____.

    a. lifestyles
  32. Consumer lifestyles are measured using _____.

    B. psychographics
  33. _____ are observable, statistical aspects of populations including such factors as age, gender, or income.

    E. demographics
  34. AIO statements are used to gain an understanding of consumers.  What does AIO stand for?

    D. activities, interests, and opinions
  35. All of the following have been identified as segments in the European tourism industry EXCEPT _____.

    b.home loving
    a. liberal
  36. All of the following are primary motivations examined in the VALS classification of consumer lifestyles EXCEPT _____.

    E. financial motivations
  37. Which of the following is a group in the VALS2 classification?

    C. innovators
  38. In the VALS classification of consumers, Thinkers _____.

    E. are ideal motivated mature, and value order
  39. _____ combine data on consumer expenditures and socioeconomic variables with geographic information in order to identify commonalities in consumption patterns of households in various regions.

    A. Geodemographic techniques
  40. It is often useful to look at demographic variables, such as age, income, and education, by ZIP codes.  Combining demographic data with geographic information such as zip codes is an example of using a _____ technique.

    D. geodemographic
  41. PRIZM combines _____ information in a manner that enables marketers to better understand and target their customers.

    D. demographic and behavioral
  42. PRIZM is a consumer classification system that uses _____ different segments.

    d. 66
  43. _____ refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him- or herself.

    B. self-concept
  44. The study of symbols and their meaning is referred to as _____.

    C. semiotics
  45. Which self-concept refers to how a consumer currently perceives him- or herself?

    B. actual self
  46. Which self-concept refers to how a consumer would like to perceive himself?

    E. ideal self
  47. The positivity of an individual’s self-concept is called _____.

    b.ideal self
    c.perfected self
    e. self-esteem
  48. Which theory proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the match between a consumer’s self-concept and the image of typical users of a product?

    A. self-congruency theory
Card Set
Psy 255- Chapter 6
Chapter 6