OB Ch2

  1. MARS model is.., it stands for ..
    • a model showing important factors that influence behavior and performance
    • motivation, ability, role perception, situational factors
  2. motivation
    internal forces that affects direction, intensity and persistence of behavior
  3. ability
    Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities, including intellectual and physical abilities
  4. dimensions of intellectual abilities
    memory, spatial, number apititude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, reasoning
  5. competency
    personal characteristics that lead to superior performance
  6. ways to acheive good person-job matching
    • select qualified people
    • training
    • redesign the job
  7. ways to select qualified people
    • selection test
    • work sample
    • ask workers to provide reference for past performances
  8. role perceptions
    the extent to which workers understand the job duties assigned or expected of them
  9. role perception include..
    • What tasks to perform
    • Relative importance of tasks
    • Preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks
  10. good role perceptions lead to..
    • good guidance of direction of effort
    • improve coordination among co-workers, suppliers and other stakeholders
  11. situational factors are..they include...
    • Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-termcontrol that constrain or facilitate behavior
    • time, people, budget, work facilities
  12. personality
    the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which an individual reacts to and interact with the world around them
  13. personality traits
    enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
  14. personality determinants
    • heredity(nature)
    • environment(nurture)
  15. big five personality dimension
    Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, agreeableness, openness to experience
  16. Conscientiousness
    • reliable, responsible, organized, persistent
    • predicts performance in almost all occupations/jobs
  17. emotional stability
    • ability to withstand stress, calm, self confident, secure
    • significant relationship with performance
  18. extroversion
    • comfort level with relationships, sociable, assertive
    • extroverts perform better in sales and managerial positions
  19. agreeableness
    propensity to defer to others, trusting, warm, coorperative
  20. openness to experience
    • range of interest and fascination of novelty, creative, curious, sensitive
    • predicts performance in training
  21. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • Introversion – Extroversion
    • Sensing – intuition
    • Thinking – Feeling
    • Perceiving - Judging
  22. caveats about personality testing
    • inaccurate(fake answers)
    • weak predictor of performance
    • does not convey a favourable image of the company
  23. self-concepts
    belief + evaluation
  24. complexity dimension of self-concept
    consist of many categories
  25. clarity dimension of self-concept
    self-concept that is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent and stable across time
  26. consistency dimension of self-concept
    similar personality traits and values are required across all aspects of self-concept
  27. people perform better when their self concept are clear and has many element(high complexity) that are compatible with each other(high consistency) 
  28. social identity theory
    explains self-concepts in terms of personal and social idenitity
  29. personal identity
    defining ourselves in terms of things that make us unique in a situation
  30. social identity
    defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment
  31. self-enahancement
    motivation to be valued
  32. effects of self enhancement
    • better mental health
    • recall positive feedback
    • self-serving bias
    • overconfidence and bad decisio making
  33. self veritfication
    Motivation to verify and maintain our existing self-concept
  34. signs of Self-Verification
    • reject inconsistent info and prefer consistent feedback
    • interact mroe with those who affirm our self concepts
  35. components of self evaluation
    • self esteem
    • self efficacy
    • locus of control
  36. self esteem
    extent to which people like, respect and are satisfied with themselves
  37. self efficacy
    person's belief that he or she can successfullyy complete a task
  38. locus of control
    person's belief about the amount of control he or she has over their personal life events(people with internal locus of control have more positive evaluation)
  39. what aspects of social identity affect job performance
    • self-efficacy
    • locus of control
  40. values
    • Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences
    • serve as moral compass
  41. value system
    hierarchy of values
  42. how values relates to self concepts
    values partly define who we are as individuals and as members of groups with similar values
  43. Schwartz’s Values Model
    • Openness to change(pursue innovative ways)
    • conservation(preserve status quo)
    • self-enhancement(self interest)
    • self-transcendence(promote the welfare of others and nature)
  44. Habitual and conscious behavior
    Habitual behavior usually consistent with values, but conscious behavior less so because values are abstract constructs that sounds good in theory but are less easily followed in practice
  45. Decisions and behaviors linked to values when...
    • Mindful of our values
    • Have logical reasons to apply values in that situation
    • Situation does not interfere
  46. different levels of value congruence
    • person-organization value congruence
    • espoused-enacted value congruence
    • organization-society value congruence
  47. espoused-enacted value congruence is important for leaders because..
    incongruence undermine their perceived integrity
  48. pros and cons of incongruence
    • pro: better decision-making(diverse values)
    • cons: Incompatible decisions, Lower satisfaction and commitment, Increased stress and turnover
  49. Individualism
    the degree that people value independence and personal uniqueness
  50. collectivism
    • the degree that people value duty to group to which they belong and to group harmony
    • (individualism and collectivism are not opposite of each other)
  51. power distance
    the degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society
  52. uncertainty avoidance
    The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty(high).
  53. Achievement-Nurturing orientation
    The degree that people value assertiveness,competitiveness, and materialism (achievement)versus relationships and well-being of others(nurturing)
  54. ethics
    Ethics: Study of values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and whether outcomes are good or bad
  55. utilitarianism
    greatest good for greatest number of people
  56. individual rights
    everyone has entitlements that let him or her act in a certain way
  57. distributive justice
    people who are similar to each other should receive similar benefits and burdens
  58. what affect ethical conduct?
    • moral intensity
    • ethical sensitivity
    • situational factors like training and culture
  59. what affect moral intensity(the degree to which an issue demands an application of ethical principle)
    • Magnitude of consequences
    • Social consensus
    • Probability and nature of effect
    • Temporal immediacy
    • Proximity
    • Concentration of effect
  60. ethical sensitivity
    enables people to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and determine its importance
  61. ways to support ethical behavior
    • creating ethical code of conduct
    • ethics training
    • ethics hotline
    • culture of ethical decision making
    • ethical conduct from top management
Card Set
OB Ch2
individual behavior, personality and values