PSY 301 (III)

  1. - Survival
    - Reproduction

    As temperature goes up, so does number of batters getting hit.
    Social behaviors
  2. Struggle for resources
  3. Quest for immortality
  4. - Behavior used to harm another
  5. People aggress when their goals are thwarted
    Frustrating aggression principle
  6. Spontaneous aggression
    Impulsive Aggression
  7. Uncomfortable internal state:
    • - Temperature
    • - Pain
    • - Triggers
  8. Violent vs. Non-violent aggression
    • - Violent = robber w/ gun
    • - Non-violent (defrauding shareholders

    All to achieve goals in self interest
  9. What is the best predictor of aggression?

    • - Males
    • - Testosterone
  10. - Wason Card-selction task
    - Prisoner's Dilemma
  11. hypothesis confirming bias "if not P then Q"
    Wason Card-selecting task
  12. self interest (even in the face of lesser punishment always rules out
    Prisoner's dilemma
  13. Behavior benefitting another without benefitting ones self
  14. Evolution selects for genes that cause individuals to provide benefits to their relatives
    Kin selection
  15. Benefits another with rule that benefits will be returned in future
    Reciprocal Altruism
  16. Two or more people with something in common
  17. Posintive of negative evaluation of group members
  18. Positive or negative behavior based on their group membership
  19. Who do people favor more, "in-group" members or "out-group" members?
    "In-group" members
  20. Do good citizens often behave badly in groups?
  21. Effects of group on individual behavior
    • - Deindividualism
    • - Social Loafing
    • - Diffusion of responsibility
    • - Bystander intervention
    • - Group polarization
    • - Groupthink hypothesis
  22. Those excluded form society show brain activity similar to ______.
  23. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Lose individual values
  24. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Expend less effort when in group than alone
    Social Loafing
  25. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Diminished responsibility for their actions when surrounded by others acting similar
    Diffusion of responsibility
  26. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Helping strangers in emergency
    Bystander intervention
  27. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Group's initial learning gets strong over time
    Group polarization
  28. Effect of group in individual behavior

    Cohesive decisions interfere with challenging and questioning
    Groupthink hypothesis
  30. Selectivity

    - Birth has no physical costs for men
  31. Women more selective unless culture lowers costs (birth control, child rearing, financial independence)
  32. Types of Attraction
    • - Situational--mere exposure effect
    • - Physical--attractiveness
    • - Psychological--similarity
  33. Universals for attractiveness
    • - "V" males
    • - hourglass shape females
    • - symmetry of face and body
    • - immature facial for females
    • - mature facial for males
    • - genetic predisposition to prefer qualities
  35. Few species have long-term commitment. Why us?
    - Our infants are born immature
  36. Love
    • - Passionate
    • - Companionate
    • - Social exchange hypothesis
  37. Social exchange hypothesis
    People remain in relationships as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits.

    • - Comparison level (to alternate)
    • - Equity (for both partners equal cost-benefit)
    • - Time, vested interests
  39. Control of one person's behavior by another
    Social influence
  40. One person observes another being rewarded or punished
    Observational learning
  41. Organisms repeat behaviors that are rewarded
    Hedonic motive
  42. Exceptions to Hedonic motive
    • - Reward and punishment sometimes more effective on humans bc of observational learning
    • - Rewards and punishment often less effective bc we think about causes of rewards or punishments
  43. We depend on each other for many things
    Approval motive
  44. Approval is a __________.
  45. Standard for behavior
  46. Person's behavior provides normative information to next person
    Normative influence
  47. People should benefit those that benefit them
    Norm of reciprocity
  48. Refuse something initially; say yes at next request, using reciprocate concessions to influence behavior
    Door in the face technique
  49. Tendency to do what others do simple because others are doing it
  50. Example of conformity
    Line test, Solomaon Asch
  51. Nazi criminal put to death for "obeying authority"
    Adolf Eichmann
  52. Tendency to do what authorities tell us because we are told to.
    - Stanley Milgram
  53. We are motivated to know that is true, good, so that our actions will be fruitful
    Accuracy motive
  54. Enduring feeling towards object or event
  55. Enduring knowledge about object or event
  56. Behavior provides infor about what is good or true
    Informational influence
  57. Persons attitude of beliefs influenced by communication
    - Systematic
    - Heuristic
  58. Change in attitude brought by appeals to reason or logic
    Systematic persuasion
  59. Change in attitutde brought by appeals to habit of emotion
    Heuristic persuasion
  61. Unpleasant state that arises with inconsistency of actions, attitudes, or beliefs
    Cognitive dissonance
  62. Uses persons desire for consistency to influence behavior
    Foot in the door technique
  64. - Categorization
    - Drawing inferences about somebody based on group they belong to
  65. Types of stereotyping
    • - Inaccurate
    • - Overused
    • - Self-perpetuating
    • - Automatic
  66. Inaccurate stereotyping
    Illusory correlation--seeing strong pattern or relationship where no such exists
  67. List race before taking SAT
    Self-perpetuating stereotyping
  68. Automatic Stereotyping
    Unconsciously done
Card Set
PSY 301 (III)
Exam 4 - Social Psychology