OB Ch3.txt

  1. perception
    process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us
  2. selective attention
    • size
    • intensity
    • novelty
    • motion
    • repetition
    • out of context
    • innate drives to reinforce self concept
    • anticipations of future events
  3. confirmation bias
    tendency to screen information that is contrary to our vlaues and assumptions, already formed theory
  4. functions of emotional markers
    • store information in memory
    • reproduce the same emotion when we then think abou this information
    • make quick judgments of good and bads in interpretations
  5. categorical thinking
    organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-termed memories
  6. Perceptual grouping principles
    • perceptiual groupings are based on...
    • Identifying patterns
    • Similarity or proximity
    • Cognitive closure: filling in missing pieces
  7. the above process operates very quickly and without our awareness, based on very thin slices of information
  8. mental models
    visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world
  9. pros and cons about mental model
    • pro: help us quickly make sense of the world
    • con: block recognition of new/ unfamiliar information
  10. minimize the perceptual problems with mental models
    • work with people from diverse backgrounds
    • constantly questions the mental models
  11. social identity theory
    explains how we perceive other people by categorization, homogenization and differentiation
  12. homogenization
    ascribing similar characteristics to people within a group
  13. differentiation
    assigning more favourable characteristics to our own group
  14. stereotyping
    Develop social categories and assign traits to people based on their group membership
  15. what affects stereotypes?
    • personal experience
    • cultural upbringings
    • media image
  16. why do we have stereotypes
    • strong need for cognitive closure
    • easier to remember features of different people
    • enhances self-concept(differentiation)
  17. problems with stereotyping
    • inaccurate
    • discrimination
  18. attribution process
    • Attribute causes of events to people(internal) or situation(external)
    • Assign credit or blame
  19. why is attribution process important
    it forms cause-effect relationship, hence affecting how we respond to others' behaviors
  20. attribution rules(internal)
    • high consistency
    • low distinctiveness
    • low consensus
  21. fundamental attribution error
    tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that person's behavior
  22. self-serving bias
    tendency to attribute favourable outcomes to internal factors and our failures to external factors
  23. self-fulfillig prophecy
    the perceptual process in which our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations
  24. contingencies of self-serving prophecy
    • At the beginning of a relationship
    • When several people have similar expectations about the person
    • When the person has low past achievement
  25. reason for self-fulfilling prophecy
    • expectations motivates employees
    • more skills and knowledge are provided for employees because of the expectations
  26. other perceptual error-halo effect
    Overall positive impression based on one positive characteristic
  27. other perceptual error-primacy effect
    Overall impression of person based on firstimpressions
  28. other perceptual error-recency effect
    Evaluation of person based on most recentimpression
  29. other perceptual error-False-consensus effect
    Overestimating the extent to which others hold similar beliefs
  30. methods to improve perception, eg less stereotyping
    • know ourselves(in order to be more open-minded and nonjudgmental)
    • empathy
    • meaning interaction
  31. what is meaningful interaction
    • Be close and frequent
    • Involve task with shared goals
    • Participants have equal status
  32. learning
    A relatively permanent change in behavior (orbehavior tendency) that occurs as a result ofa person’s interaction with the environment
  33. tacit knowledge
    embedded in our actions and way of thinking and is transmitted through experience and observation
  34. behavior modification/operant conditioning/reinforcement theory
    • building connnections between antecedents(cue) and consequences of behavior
    • Completely dependent on the environment, thinkg is unimportant
  35. contingencies of reinforcement
    sth that maintain, increases or reduces the probability that a behavior is repeated
  36. positive reinforcement
    rewarding desired behavior
  37. negative reinforcement
    removing unpleasant consequence when a desired behavior occurs
  38. punishment
    punish undesirable behavior
  39. exinction
    as there are no consequence to a behavior, the behavior decreases to zero(do-nothing strategy)
  40. pros and cons of punishment
    • pros: maintain a sense of fairness
    • cons: generate negative emotions towards the punisher
  41. pros and cons of continuous reinforcement(positive reinforcement)
    • pros: good schedule for learning
    • cons:Rapid extinction when stopped
  42. pros of variable ratio schedule
    Highly resistant to extinction
  43. why must behavior reinforcement programs be run infrequently and for a short duration
    prevent rewards from ecoming entitlement(incentivizing behavior)
  44. social learning theory
    Learning by observing; stress the importance of perception in learning
  45. ways of social learning
    • Behavioral modeling(attentional, retention, motor reproduction)
    • Learning behavior consequences
    • Self-reinforcement(reward yourself when a goal is completed)
  46. Kolb’s experiential learning model
    • reflective observation, active experimentation
    • -->concrete experience
  47. ways to maintain learning orientation
    • value new knowledge
    • encourage employees to take reasonable risks(reward experimentation)
    • recognize mistakes as part of learning
  48. knowlege management in organizations-acquisition
    • become aware of new trends form clients or suppliers
    • hiring individuals
    • acquiring compnaies
    • experimenttion
  49. knowlege management in organizations-sharing
    • computer intranets and digital repositories of knowledge
    • informal online or face-to-face communication(social larning and experiential learning)
  50. knowlege management in organizations-use
    staff recognize the availability and freedom to use knowledge(corporate culture)
Card Set
OB Ch3.txt
perceptions and learning in organizations