Renaissance Art (part 6)

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    • St. Peter's Basilica
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1556-1564
    • Location: Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques:
    •  compact domed Greek cross inscribed in a square inscribed in another square
    • finished Bramante’s plan
    • fronted with a double column portico
    • creates a snowflake-like complexity
    • more cohesive unity and open space than Bamante's plan
    • compact dome makes it look narrow and tall
    • double colossal pilasters
    • creating and undulating wall surface in addition to undulating wall - more texture
    • unity of drum and dome
    • mimics beauty of human body
    • balance between the static and dynamic elements
    • plays on vertical through doubled columns on drum and pilasters on dome
    • he doesn't finish it
    • drum has an undulating surface
    • sculpted garland allude to Roman
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    • Last Judment
    • Artist: Michelangelo
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1534-1541
    • Location: Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques
    • his style changes
    • turbulent times for Italy
    • more pessimistic, moralizing, and grimly fanatical religious spirit
    • depicts fate of humanity and the fate of his own would
    • mankind has forsaken god
    • commissioned by Pope Paul III
    • Christ is a stern harsh judge
    • arms lifted in a gesture of damnation
    • could destroy heaven, hell, and earth in one swoop of his arm
    • Christ positioned as Moses sculpture
    • thicker male anatomy
    • heavier figures
    • very bright colors
    • fresco is polluted because of burning for papal elections
    • choirs of heavenly figures
    • awe inspiring images
    • trumpeting angels
    • souls being thrown down to hell
    • Romanesque style gargoyles
    • saint who had be skinned alive is holding his own skin in the form of Michealangelo
    • shaped as a skull
    • no Neo-Platonic beauty
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    • Il Gesu
    • Artist: Della Porta and Giacomo de Vignola (plan)
    • Era: High Renaissance, 1575-1584
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • plan
    • monumental expansion of Alberti's Sant Andrea
    • nave is to take over main volume of space
    • great hall with side chapels
    • dome empahsizes approach to the altrar
    • open space to create a single great hall
    • theatrical setting
    • Jesuits and beginning of Counter-Reformation
    • mother church of the Jesuit Order
    • starts Baroque kind of
    • exterior
    • union of lower and upper stories through scroll buttresses like Santa Maria Novela
    • classical pediment
    • reduced pediment in tympanum
    • pairs pilasters
    • horizontal march of pilasters and columns that builds to a dramatic climax at the central bay
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    • The Descent from the Cross
    • Artist: Jacopo da Pontormo
    • Era: Mannerism, 1525-1528
    • Location: Capponi Chapel, Sta. Felicita, Florence
    • Techniques:
    • rotating convential figural groups along a vertical axis
    • leaves a void in the center of the piece
    • accentuates void by filling it with hands - represented loss and grief
    • ambiguity - anxious glances in all directions
    • pleading facial expressions
    • athletic bending and twisting
    • elastically elongate bodies and limbs
    • heads are small oval faces
    • heavy eyelids
    • contrasting colors
    • greens clash with blues and pinks
    • space is too shallow for action
    • no depth, crowded and compressed
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    • Madonna with the Long Neck
    • Artist: Parmagianino
    • Era: Mannerism, 1535
    • Techniques:
    • delicate hands with elongated fingers
    • pear shaped physique
    • swaying elongated frames of figures
    • soft faces
    • elongates Christ to fit in wide lap
    • Christ child looks dead - allusion to crucifixion
    • sash across her chest
    • female on left has short torso and long leg
    • awkward space
    • astute drapery
    • column from nowhere
    • little man in  bottom right, possibly biblical refenercne
    • uses curtain to make a stage like setting but open space on right
    • neck matches column which matches medieval hymn, Virgin's neck is a great ivory tower of column
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    • The Exposure of Luxury or Venus, Child, Folly, and Time
    • Artist: Bronzino
    • Era: Mannerism, 1546
    • Techniques:
    • no depth of space all figures in front plane
    • contours for figures are strong sculptures
    • heads, hands, and feet are graceful
    • Venus is having a relationship with Cupid
    • male behind drapery is time
    • female in back is truth
    • putti symbolizes folly and he is throwing flowers
    • envy is tearing her hair out on left
    • monsterous figure, little girl, with a honeycomb tail - fraud
    • fraud is represented by the masks
    • doves for peace
    • apple is a symbols of knowledge and death
    • all of these are elements of love
    • "love is foolish with its hatred and inconstancy and its folly will be discovered in time"
    • love doesn't last
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    • Rape of the Sabine Madiens
    • Artist: Giovanni da Bologna
    • Era: Mannerism, 1583
    • Location: Loggia Dei Lanzi, Piazza Della Signoria, Florence
    • Techniques
    • intertwined figures
    • contoured bodies
    • true male and female anatomy
    • mythological story lines but they are typical men and women - allusion to Laoccon
    • action drama and theatricality
    • central axis which all motion spins around- contained in a cylinder of space
    • negative space is just as important as the solid mass
    • first large scale since Classical era
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    • Palazzo del Te
    • Artist: Guiliano Romano
    • Era: Mannerism, 1525-1535
    • Location: Mantua
    • Techniques:
    • summer palace for the duke and a stud farm
    • faces inner courtyard
    • two unequal registers - bottom is larger
    • real and fake windows
    • no balance or symmetry
    • some rounded and some square entrances
    • engaged columns
    • semicircular niches some have architraves
    • holding up triglyphs
    • keystone, arches are going to fall
    • Romania personal humor
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    • San Zaccaria Altarpiece
    • Artist: Giovanni Bellini
    • Era: Venetian, 1505
    • Techniques:
    • Madonna in holy conversation
    • very conventional with enthroned virgin
    • St. Peter holds key and book
    • St. Catherine hold palm leaf of martyrdom and broken wheel
    • St. Jerome holds just a book - translation of a Bible
    • coil angel playing a viol
    • placed in side a shrine with outdoor lighting
    • flat wall recesses into space
    • softer and more luminous in color
    • sophistication of light and color that creates serenity and spiritual calmness
    • no interact between figures
    • line is not the chief fromal element
    • outlines dissolve in light and shadow
    • atmospheric hazy quality kind of sfumato
    • raise viewers' view point
    • floor is used for recession into space
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    • Pastoral Symphony
    • Artist: Giorgione de Castelfranco
    • Era: Venetian, 1508
    • Techniques:
    • oil on wood
    • poesia
    • dense shadow in background
    • figures emerge as soft forms that project out of shadow
    • hazy darkness
    • villa crowns hillside
    • evokes a pastoral mood
    • shepard symbolizes the poet
    • natural setting alludes to poetry
    • pipes and lute are his poetry
    • two women are the muses - invisible inspiration
    • one woman with water symbolizes well of poetic inspiration
    • women's volumntuous bodies are softly model and hazy
    • poetic personifications of nature's abundance
    • parishes beauty of nature, music, and pleasure
    • lost but not forgotten paradise
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    • Assumption of the Virgin
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1516-1518
    • Location: Sta. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • major altarpiece in the church in Venice
    • convey light through color
    • moment when Mary rises to heaven
    • clouds are golden and luminous
    • that light radiates into the church interior
    • god the father is above her with open arms
    • apostles gesticulationg widely
    • calm in heaven and wild earthbound figures
    • through vibrant colors infuses the image with drama and intensity - his reputation
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    • Madonna of the Pesaro Family
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1519-1526
    • Location: Sta. Maria dei Frari, Venice
    • Teachniques:
    • set inside and architectural arch
    • canvas having on wall
    • commissioned by bishop Pesaro - commander of papal fleet that led a successful campaign against the Turks in the Venetian-Turkish War
    • stately, sunlit setting
    • Madonna is receiveing the commander who is knealing below her at the foot of her throne
    • St. George behind Pesaro carrying banner with coats of arms of Pesaro and Borgal pope line
    • Turkish hostage alludes to Venetian-Turkish War
    • on the stairs is St. Peter who is recording in a book
    • St Francis is presenting rest of Pesaro family members
    • everything is based on a diagonal composition
    • Madonna is top of axis
    • she is at top of diagonal follows her eye line down to Pesaro
    • banner brings symmetry to piece because it provides intersecting diagonal
    • based on movement and gesture, dynamic
    • colors are about courtly splendor
    • monumental figures either single or in groups but they match the majesty of the event itself
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    • Venus of Urbino
    • Artist: Titian
    • Era: Venetian, 1538
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • just for her husband
    • presented to her husband in a bed chamber of classical mythology
    • based on a Venus by Gorgionai
    • official formula for reclining female nude
    • diagonal composition
    • linear play of bed accenting her body
    • dog is pendent - balance - doesn't have to be same size - not fidelity - technical balance
    • depth of space through foreground, middle ground, and background
    • female is in the foreground, dog is in the middle ground, and curtain and everything behind it is in the background
    • simple drapery pushes her into foreground
    • makes smaller unit for background space
    • red of sofa to red of servant's dress provides opposing diagonal
    • holding fruit in her hand
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    • Jupiter and Io
    • Artist: Correggio
    • Era: Venetian, 1532
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • almost Baroque
    • Jupiter is a male god who take any woman he wants - comes to earth in the from of a cloud to seduce Io
    • figure with a soft pudgy back whose proportions and skin tone are more realistic
    • very sweet angelic face with high receding hairline
    • sfumato lighting - hazy quality creates sensuality
    • light source is outside picture and accents the softness of her back
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    • The Last Supper
    • Artist: Tintoretto
    • Era: Venetian, 1594
    • Location: Chancel, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • almost part of Counter Reformation teaching
    • nature of art
    • underground tavern
    • supernatural lighting that highlights Christ's head and apostles' heads too kind of to create halos (mostly Christ)
    • fire of oil lamp is shaped like wings
    • highlight smoke the looks like angels
    • Christ is at center of table
    • table is a sharp diagonal accented by flat coffered ceiling that helps recession into space
    • impression of interaction between figures
    • heavy atmosphere and hazy in the way it creates a spiritual quality
    • solid forms melt into light and dark- ghostly unearthly darkness in back - limitless space
    • sharp angles and line that merge extremely fast - baroque style of dramatic perspective
    • chiaroscuro 
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    • Christ in the House of Levi
    • Artist: Veronese
    • Era: Venetian, 1573
    • Techniques:
    • majesty of classical architecture
    • huge scale
    • three arcades divided by massive coloumns
    • logia - cover vaulted area over table
    • plaza of St. Mark's Square in Venice in background
    • chief steward in foreground who is gesturing a welcome
    • planned to be a last supper, but accused of inpiety
    • commoners, people of different races (blacks) dwarfs, and dogs too close to Christ
    • balance ans symmetry
    • used entire color palette
    • Christ is hidden in center with natural lighting behind him
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    • Villa Rotunda
    • Artist: Polladio
    • Era: Venetian 1566-1570
    • Location: near Vicenza, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • private residence on a hill- based on ancient Roman single family houses
    • entire building is symmetrical
    • mixes Classicism's clarity with some elements of Mannerism
    • exterior has a  large flight of stairs on a high podium that enter on four side
    • three registers all different sizes, podium, first floor, second floor
    • no correlation of exterior to interior
    • Pantheon - Roman temple front facades with porticos with dome rising behind
    • sensible and functional
    • circular platform
    • all sides are equal
    • four stair cases with views into four different landscapes
    • Greek cross from Bramante
    • Pazzi Chapel inspiration with short dome
    • roof top sculpture from Etruscans and Michelangelo
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    • San Giorgio Maggiore
    • Artist: Palladio
    • Era: Venetian, 1565
    • Location: Venice, Itlay
    • Techniques:
    • ramatically placed building
    • short aisles with tall nave
    • red brick building with a marble, Roman temple front facade
    • mixes triangular pediments with round niches
    • monumental engaged columns
    • strong shadows
    • reflections off water hits the white wall stark white that divided the sea and the sky of blue
Author
felara9614
ID
177496
Card Set
Renaissance Art (part 6)
Description
High Renaissance, Mannerism, and Venetian Art
Updated