CDIS 411 Midterm Study Guide

  1. "descriptive-developmental" approach to assessment (pg. 40)
    approach to assessment that emphasizes the client's current communication status
  2. the three domains of language
    • form: syntax, morphology, phonology (prosody)
    • content: sematics (vocabulary, concepts, linkage of ideas)
    • use: pragmatics (interactional aspects, conversational skills, taking listener's perspective)
  3. importance of symbolic play development
    • some cognitive abilities preceed some aspects of communication
    • symbolic behavior is a prerequisite for true language
  4. Westby's basic levels of play development
    • object permanence -> toy operations -> representational abilities -> including other actors or receivers of actions -> pretends at activities of others -> represent events less frequently observed -> relates schemas in a sequence -> play with less realistic toys -> hypothesize about future and problem solve -> plan out pretend situations
    • 9 mos to 5 yrs
  5. use of symbolic play checklist to choose language intervention goals
    • can compare actual age with developmental age
    • know where and how child is delayed
    • provide information for goals and guidelines in intervention
  6. benefits of standardized test (norm-referenced test)
    • compare individual to a group
    • validity and reliability are high
    • average is on a range
    • quick to administer
    • basil and ceiling
  7. cons of standardized test (norm-referenced test)
    • not specific to exactly their strengths and weaknesses
    • not naturalistic
    • might not be able to accomodate to a client's test taking needs
    • cant be designed/adjusted by clinician
  8. pros of criterion reference test
    • can be specific to client's strengths and weaknesses
    • naturalistic
    • can be designed/adjusted by clinician
    • can accomodate client's test taking needs
  9. cons of criterion reference test
    • not easy to compare results to norm
    • validity and reliability not very high
    • not quick to administer
  10. sources of obtaining information about your client before seeing him/her for the first time
    • medical history
    • previous therapy
    • education/occupational history
    • social/personal background
  11. standard deviation
    (know how to read on bell curve)
  12. percentile equivalents
    • (know how to read on bell curve)
    • middle of curve is 50%
  13. standard score equivalents
    • (know how to read on bell curve)
    • 55, 70, 85, 100, 115, 130, 145
  14. subtest standard score equivalents
    • (know how to read on bell curve)
    • 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19
  15. reliability (def. and types)
    • the consistency of a test or a procedure over repeated administrations and by different examiners
    • interrater, test retest, equivalent or alternative form
  16. validity (def. and types)
    • the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure
    • content, predictive
  17. how to calculate chronological age
    • current year               current month              current day
    • -birth year                 -birth month                -birth day
    • = year                       = month
    • do not report days
    • round up a month if over 15 days
    • represent 4:11 or 4-11
    • do not represent 4.11
    • 1 month = 30 days
    • 1 year = 12 months
  18. norm-referenced tests
    • test designed to compare a client's score results against a normed basis
    • standardized instruments
    • most useful for determining the existence of a problem and establishing eligibility for services
    • have certain statistical properties that allow meaningful comparisons among individuals
  19. examples of norm-referenced tests
    • Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination
    • MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories
    • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III
    • Preschool Language Scale-4
  20. characteristics of norm-referenced tests
    • reliability
    • validity
    • standardization
    • descriptive statistics
    • error
    • test norms and scores
    • test administration procedures
  21. reasons for performing a communication assessment
    • allow for identification of strengths/areas of age appropriate development
    • allow for identification of areas of weakness/disorder
    • help to identify where to check for treatment stimulability
  22. six purposes of assessment
    • screening
    • determining a diagnosis or differential diagnosis
    • determining eligibility for services
    • establishing a baseline
    • developing intervention targets
    • tracking and documenting progress
  23. screening
    collecting data to decide whether there is a strong likelihood that an individual does or does not have a problem that will require more in-depth assessment
  24. determining a diagnosis or differential diagnosis
    labeling the communication problem or distinguishing the disorder from another disorder to be able to recommend an appropriate course of treatment
  25. determining eligibility for services
    • certain services have specific guidelines and eligibility requirements that must be met before funding by a specific source can be accessed
    • ex: IDEA requires public schools to provide free special educaiton and related services to children whose problems have a negative impact on their ability to profit from general education
  26. establishing a baseline
    the individual's current functioning in all areas of communication serve as a reference point for measuring progress during treatment
  27. developing intervention targets
    identifying potential targets or goals for intervention that would have the greatest impact on the individual's communication, and client and family priorities
  28. tracking and documenting progress
    assessment procedures are used throughout intervention to measure progress and assess the effectiveness of the intervention itself
  29. five important characteristics of norm-referenced test
    • standard score
    • percentile
    • age equivalence
    • compare individual to a group
    • high reliability and validity
    • quick to administer
    • basil and ceiling
  30. methods of assessment
    • norm-referenced/standardized tests
    • criterion-referenced procedures
    • behavioral observation
  31. pros of behavioral observation
    • describing behavior in a systematic fashion without reference to a predetermined standard
    • measuring presence or absence of a behavior
    • measuring the rate, magnitude or duration of a behavior's occurance
    • measures situations in which a behavior is likely to occur
    • can be made in real time, can be taped for later analysis
    • qualitative and quantitative approaches
  32. cons of behavioral observation
    • not very quick
    • difficult to formally assess
    • nothing to compare it to
    • can lead to subjectiveness in interpretation
  33. major communication and collateral areas to be covered during a communication assessment
    • case history
    • language domains
    • language modalities
    • speech/oral motor skills
    • voice
    • fluency
    • hearing
    • cognition
    • behavioral/social/emotional
    • literacy
    • motor functioning
  34. name the area of assessment: Kyle produced /k/ and /g/ consistently in the final position of words.
    language modalities (formulation and production)
  35. name the area of assessment: Craig consistently correctly answered to "yes/no" questions but not to "where" questions. For example, when the clinician said, "where is the bear?", Craig responded, "crying."
    language modalities (comprehension)
  36. name the area of assessment: Mrs. Shuler's ability to recall information after a 5 minute delay was completed with 50% accuracy.
  37. name the area of assessment: Mr. Claus produced his name but was unable to produce the days of the week.
  38. name the area of assessment: Limited palatal movement was observed during the production of /ah/.
    motor speech
  39. What type of test compares individual's performance to the performance of others?
  40. This method of testing uses procedures that are devised to examine a particular form of communicative behavior.
    criterion reference
  41. This method of testing is not a reference to other children's achievement/behavior.
    criterion reference
  42. This method helps you to determine if a communication problem exists and if a client is eligible for services.
  43. This is the type of assessment method that would allow you to measure parent-child interaction.
    Behavioral observation
  44. The concept of test validity applies to this type of assessment measure.
  45. Test validity means:
    the test measures what it claims to measure
Card Set
CDIS 411 Midterm Study Guide
CDIS 411 Midterm Study Guide