Med Term 4

  1. ankyl/o
    crooked or stiff
  2. arthr/o articul/o
  3. brachi/o
  4. cervic/o
  5. chrondr/o
    cartilage (gristle)
  6. cost/o
  7. crani/o
  8. dactyl/o
    digit (finger or toe)
  9. fasci/o
    fascia (a band)
  10. femor/o
  11. fibr/o
  12. kyph/o
  13. lei/o
  14. lord/o
  15. lub/o
    loin (lower back)
  16. my/o, myos/o, muscul/o
  17. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  18. oste/o
  19. patell/o
    knee cap
  20. pelv/i
    pelvis (basin) or hip bone
  21. radi/o
  22. rhabd/o
    rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
  23. sarc/o
  24. scoli/o
  25. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
  26. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  27. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon (to stretch)
  28. thorac/o
  29. ton/o
    tone or tension
  30. uln/o
  31. appendicular skeleton
    bones of the shoulder, pelvis and upper and lower exteremities
  32. axial skeleton
    bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest and hyoid bone (u-shaped bone at base of tongue)
  33. bone
    specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes; forms skeleton
  34. compact bone
    tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones
  35. spongy bone, cancellous bone
    mesh like bone tissue found in interior of bones and surrounding the medullary cavity
  36. long bones
    bones of arms and legs
  37. short bones
    bones of wrists and ankles
  38. flat bones
    bones of ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis and skull
  39. irregular bones
    bones of vertebrae and face
  40. sesamoid bones
    round bones found near joints
  41. epiphysis
    wide ends of a long bone (physis = growth)
  42. diaphysis
    shaft of long bone
  43. metaphysis
    growth zone between epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
  44. endosteum
    membrane lining the medullary cavity of bone
  45. medullary cavity
    cavity within shaft of long bones, filled with bone marrow
  46. bone marrow
    soft, connective tissue within medullary cavity
  47. red bone marrow
    functions to form red blood cells, some white, and platelets; found in cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
  48. yellow bone marrow
    gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in formation of red blood cells
  49. periosteum
    fibrous, vascular membrane that covers bone
  50. articular cartilage
    gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate
  51. articulation
  52. bursa
    fibrous sac between certain tnedons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
  53. disc / disk
    flate, plate like structure compose of fibrocartilaginous tissue between vertebrae that reduces friction
  54. nucleus pulposus
    soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disk
  55. ligament
    flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
  56. synovial membrane
    membrane lining the capsule of a joint
  57. synovial fluid
    joint-lubricating fluid secreted by synovial membrane
  58. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or a part of the body
  59. striated/skeletal muscle
    voluntary muscle attached to skeleton
  60. smooth muscle
    involuntary muscle found in internal organs
  61. cardiac muscle
    heart muscle
  62. origin of muscle
    muscle end atached to bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
  63. insertion of a muscle
    muscle end attached to bone that moves when the muscle contracts
  64. tendon
    band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
  65. fascia
    band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates muscle
  66. coronal/frontal plane
    vertical division of body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
  67. sagittal plane
    vertical division of the body into right and left positions
  68. transverse plane
    horizontal divison of body into upper and lower portions
  69. anterior / ventral (A)
    front of body
  70. posterior / dorsal (P)
    back of body
  71. anterior-posterior (AP)
    from front to back, as in reference to the direction an x-ray beam
  72. superior/ cephalic
    situated above another structure; toward head
  73. inferior/ caudal
    below another structure; away from head
  74. proximal
    toward beginning or origin of structure
  75. distal
    away from beginning or origin of a structure
  76. medial
    toward middle (midline)
  77. lateral
    toward side
  78. axis
    imaginary line that runs through center of body or body part
  79. erect
    normal standing position
  80. decubitius
    lying down esp in bed (decumbo = to lie down)
  81. prone
    lying face down and flat
  82. recumbent
    lying down
  83. supine
    horizontal recument (lying flat on back "on spine")
  84. flexion
    bending at joint so angle between bones is decreased
  85. extension
    straightening of joing so angle is increased
  86. abduction
    away from body
  87. adduction
    toward body
  88. rotation
    circular movement around axis
  89. eversion
    turning outward
  90. inversion
    turning inward
  91. supination
    turning of palmar surface (palm) or plantar surface (foot) upward or forward
  92. pronation
    turning of palmar surface (palm) or plantar surface (foot) downward or backward
  93. dorsiflexion
    bending of foot or toes upward
  94. plantar flexion
    bending of sole of the foot by curling toes toward the ground
  95. range of motion (ROM)
    total motion possible in joint; measured to degrees (ability to flex, extend, etc)
  96. goniometer
    instrument used to measure joint angles
  97. arthralgia
    joint pain
  98. atrophy
    shrinking of muscle size
  99. crepitation/crepitus
    grating suond sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones
  100. exostosis
    projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
  101. flaccid
    flabby, relaxed or having defective or absent muscle tone
  102. hypertrophy
    increase in size of tissue, such as muscle
  103. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone or tension
  104. myalgia/ myodynia
    muscle pain
  105. osteoalgia/osteodynia
    bone pain
  106. rigor/ rigidity
    stiffness; stiff muscle
  107. spasm
    drawing in; involuntary muscle contraction
  108. spastic
    uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements (Resembles spasm)
  109. tetany
    tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
  110. tremor
    shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
  111. ankylosis
    stiff joint condtion
  112. arthritis
    inflammation of joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth,  and limitation of motion
  113. osteoarthritis (OA) / degenerative / degenerative joint disease (DJD)
    most common form of arthritis, affecting weight bearing joints, characterized by erosion of articular cartilage
  114. rheumatoid arthritis
    most crippling form of arthritis; characterized by chronic systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial ankylosis and deformity
  115. gouty arthritis
    acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (esp big toe) , caused by hyperuricemia (excessive level of uric acid in blood)
  116. bony necrosis/ sequestrum
    bone tissue that has died from loss of blood suply, such as can occur after a fracture
  117. bunion
    swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by the inflammation of the bursa
  118. bursitis
    inflamattion of a bursa
  119. chondromalacia
    softening of cartilage
  120. epiphysitis
    inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone
  121. fracture (Fx)
    broken or cracked bone
  122. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open wound
  123. open  fracture
    compound fracture; broken bone with open wound
  124. simple fracture
    nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extrensive treatment to repair
  125. complex fracture
    displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  126. fracture line
    line of the break of broken bone
  127. comminuted fracture
    broken in many small pieces
  128. greenstick fracture
    bending and incomplete break of a bone; children
  129. herniated disk
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulpous protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  130. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  131. myositis
    inflammation of muscle
  132. myoma
    muscle tumor
  133. leiomyoma
    smooth muslce tumor
  134. leimyosarcoma
    malignant smooth muscle tumor
  135. rhabdomyoma
    skeletal muscle tumor
  136. rhabdomyosarcoma
    malignant skeletal muscle tumor
  137. musclar dystrophy
    a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; Duchenne type most common
  138. osteoma
    bone tumor
  139. osteosarcoma
    malignant bone tumor
  140. osteomalacia
    disease marked by softening of bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  141. rickets
    osteomalacia in children; bone deformity
  142. osteomyelitis 
    infection of bone and bone marrow
  143. osteoporosis
    condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity; causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily (porosis = passage)
  144. spinal curvatures
    curvatures of spine or spinal column
  145. kyphosis
    abnormal posterior curvature of thoracic spine (humped-back condition)
  146. lordosis
    abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
  147. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-Shaped curve)
  148. spondyloisthesis
    forward sliping of a lumbar vertebra (listhesis = slipping)
  149. spondylosis
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
  150. sprain
    injury to ligament caused by joint trama w/o dislocation / fracture
  151. subluxation
    partial dislocation
  152. tedinitis or tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon
  153. electromyogram (EMG)
    a neurodiagnostic, graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and contraction; used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders (muscular dystrophy)
  154. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    nonioninzing imaging using magnetic fields and radio waves to visualize anatomic structures
  155. nuclear medicine imagine / radionuclide organ imaging
    an ioninzing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes
  156. bone scan
    nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect tumor, malignancy, etc.
  157. arthrogram
    radiograph ofa joint taken after injection of contrast medium
  158. amputation
    partial or complete removal of a limb
  159. arthrocentesis
    puncture for aspiration of a joint
  160. arthrodesis
    binding or fusing of joint surfaces
  161. arthroplasty
    repair or reconstruction of a joint
  162. arthroscopy
    procedure using arthroscope to examine, diagnose and repair a joint from within
  163. bone grafting
    transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
  164. bursectomy
    excision of a bursa
  165. myoplasty
    repair of muscle
  166. open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) of fracture
    internal surgical repair of fracture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them in place with devices such as plates, screws and pins
  167. osteoplasty
    repair of bone
  168. osteotomy
    incision into bone
  169. spondylosyndesis
    spinal fusion
  170. tenotomy
    division of tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
  171. closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
    external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
  172. casting
    use of stiff, solid dressing aorund limb to immobilize it during healing
  173. splinting
    use of rigid device to immobilize or restrain broken bone; provides less support than cast but can be adjusted more easily due to swelling
  174. traction (Tx)
    application of a pulling force to fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
  175. closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture
    external manipulation of fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through skin to maintain postition. often includes use of an external device called a fixator to keep fracture immobilized during healing
  176. orthosis
    use of orthopedic appliance to maintain a bones position or to provide support
  177. analgesic
    drug that relieves pain
  178. narcotic
    potent analgesic with addictive properties
  179. antiinflammatory
    drug that reduces inflammation
  180. antipyretic
    drug that relieves fever
  181. nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drug (NSAID)
    group of drugs with analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic properties commonly used to treat arthritis
Card Set
Med Term 4
Musculoskeletal System