anp 2 lecture

  1. innate (nonspecific)
    • offers immediate protection against a wide variety of pathogens and forgein substances
    • first line of defense
    • mechanical barriers(epidermis)(muscosal membrane)
  2. epidermis
    • outter layer best line of defense (the skin)
    • 99% of pathogens are blocked by epidermis
  3. muscosal membrane
    lining of the mouth, urinary, gi track, any opeing in the body are lined with muscoal membrane
  4. nonspecific response first line of defense
    • chemical barriers
    • mucus-helps traps pathogens
    • lacrimal appuratus
    • saliva
    • vaginal secretion
    • sebum
    • perispirtation
    • gastric jucice
    • resident microbes
  5. mucus
    help trap pathogen
  6. lacrimal apparatus
    secrete tears, also contain enyme that are antibacteria
  7. saliva
    antimicrobual enzyme that help to break down food
  8. vaginal secretion
    place were mucus membrane traps bacteria
  9. sebum
    subasous glands that help produce oil
  10. persipiration (sweat)
    help to wash surface of the body some antienzyemes are present
  11. gastric juice
    very low ph help destroy pathogens
  12. resident microbes
    the fact they are already there so that pathogens are prevented from entering the body
  13. second line of defense
    • interferons
    • cytokines
    • antiviral protein
    • complement system
    • natural killer cells
    • immunological surveillance
    • perforins
    • phagocytes
    • neutrophils
    • emmigration
    • macrophages
    • inflimmation
  14. cytokines
    help trap nk cells
  15. interferons
    produced when a pathegon do make it in so if a infected cell enter the body it releases interferons that go to neighhboring cells, making them produce new proteins to protect them
  16. aniviral protein
    prevent viral replication
  17. complement system
    •  works with antibodies
    • are proteins that are always there
    • 11 proteins
    • cacades (of reaction dimino effects)
    • present at all time in inactive form
    • proteins work with antibodies
  18. natural killer cells (nkcells)
    lymphocytes with the ability to kill a wide veritey of pathogens
  19. immunological surveillance
    • roam around and look for pathogens
    • can also destroy some cancers
  20. perforins
    • group of proteins that put wholes in cell membrane of the pathogen, causing cytosolto leak out causing the cell to die
    • cytolysis- distruction of a cell
  21. phagocytes (neutrophills and macrophages)
    cells capialbe of consuming other particals
  22. neutrophils
    • large amount in body and do most of phogocytes
    • eat cells or other particulate material
    • garbage man- ride around and pick up trash
    • process involves several steps
  23. process of phagocytes attack on pathogens
    • chemotaxis
    • adherence
    • ingestion
    • digestion and kiling
  24. chemotaxis
    • chemical released by pathogen
    • attraction procces
    • diapedesis is emmigration- when wbc escape a blood vessel, through chemotaxis
  25. adherence
    once they get there they attach to the pathogen
  26. ingestion
    ingest pathogens
  27. digestion and killing
    when pathogens are inside they are destroyed
  28. inflammation
    • a reaction
    • defensive response to injury to tissue damage or cellular damage
    • charceteristic symptoms- redness, swelling, pain, and heat
    • isolates injured are so that clean up and repairs can take place.(make sure no pathogens, then start repair)
    • the response is the same regardless of type of damage
Card Set
anp 2 lecture
10-9-12 notes