IS 130

  1. Cookies
    small text files with unique ID tags that are embedded in a Web browser and saved on the user's hard drive.
  2. Spyware
    software that secretly gathers information about users while they browse the web
  3. Adware
    form of a spyware that collects information about the user (without consent) to display advertisements in the web browser
  4. Phishing
    sending fraud emails that seem to come from legit sources, such as bank or universities to capture info such as bank account numbers and SS#
  5. Keyloggers
    monitor and record keystrokes and can be software or hardware devices
  6. Spoofing
    an attempt to gain access to a network by posing as authorized user to find sensitive info
  7. Computer fraud
    unauthorized use of computer data for personal gain
  8. Acceptable use policies
    a set of rules specifying the legal and ethical use of a system and the consequences of noncompliance
  9. Spam
    unsolicitied email sent for advertising purposes
  10. Log files
    are generated by web server software, record a user's actions on a web site
  11. Intellectual property
    legal umbrella covering protections that involve copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and patents
  12. Cybersquatting
    registering, selling, or using a domain name to profit from someone else's trademark
  13. Virtual organizations
    networks of independent companies, suppliers, customers, and manufacturers connected via information technologies so that they can share skills and costs and have access to each other's markets
  14. Confidentiality
    a system must prevent disclosing information to anyone who isn't authorized to access it
  15. Integrity
    refers to the accuracy of info resources within an organization
  16. Availability
    computers and networks are operating and authorized users can access the info they need. It also means quick recovery in the event of system failure
  17. Fault-tolerant systems
    ensure availablilty in the event of a system failure by using a combination of hardware and software
  18. Virus
    consists of self-propagating program code that's triggered by a specified time or event. When the program or operating system containing the virus is used, the virus attaches itself to other files, and the cycle continues
  19. Worm
    travels from computer to computer in a network but it doesn't usually erase data. Worms are independent programs that can spread themselves without having to be attached to a host program.
  20. Trojan program
    contains code intended to disrupt a computer, network, or web site, and it is usually hidden inside a popular program.
  21. Logic bomb
    a type of trojan used to release a virus, worm, or other destructive code. Triggered at a certain time (birthday of a famous person) or by completing a certain event (pressing enter)
  22. Backdoor
    a programming routine built into a system by its designer or programmer to bypass system security and sneak back into the system later to access programs or files
  23. Blended threat
    a security threat that combines the characteristics of computer viruses, worms, and other malicious codes with vulnerabilites found on public and private networks
  24. denial-of-service attack (DoS)
    floods a network or server with service requests to prevent legitimate user's access to the system
  25. social engineering
    using people skills to trick others into revealing private info.
  26. Biometric Security measures
    use a physical element to enhance security measures. Unique to a person and can't be stolen, lost, copied, or passed on to others.
  27. Callback modem
    verifies whether a user's access is valid by logging the user off and then calling the user back at a predetermined number
  28. firewall
    combination of hardware and software that acts to filter or barrier between a private network and external computers or networks, including the internet.
  29. intrusion detection system (IDS)
    can protect against both external and internal access. It's usually placed in front of a firewall and can identify attack signitures, trace patterns, generate alarms for the network administrator, and cause routers to terminate connections with suspicious sources
  30. physical security measures
    primarily control access to computers and networks, and include devices for securing computers and peripherals from theft
  31. Access controls
    designed to protect systems from unauthorized access in order to preseve data integrity
  32. Virtual private network (VPN)
    provides a secure "tunnel" through the internet for transmitting messages and data via a private network
  33. Data encryption
    transforms data, called "plaintext" or "cleartext" into scrambled form called "ciphertext" that can't be read by others
  34. Secure sockets layers (SSL)
    commonly used encryption protocol that manages transmission security on the internet
  35. Transport layer security (TLS)
    cryptographic protocol that ensures data security and integrity over public networks, such as the internet
  36. Asymmetric encryption
    uses 2 keys: a pibluc key known to everyone and a private key known only to the recipient. Anyone intercepting the message can't decrypt it because they don't have the private key
  37. symmetric encryption
    the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt the message. The sender and receiver must agree on the key and keep it secret.
  38. Business continuity planning
    outlines procedures for keeping an organization operational in the even of a natural disaster or network attack
  39. Data communication
    the electronic transfer of data from one location to another
  40. Bandwidth
    the amount of data that can be tranferred from one point to another in a certain time period, usually one second
  41. Attentuation
    the loss of power in a signal as it travels from the sending device to the receiving device
  42. broadband
    data transmission, multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the transmission rate
  43. Narrowband
    a voice-grade transmission channel capable of transmitting a maximum of 56,000 bps, so only a limited amount of info can be transferred in a specific period of time
  44. protocols
    rules that govern data communication, including error detection, message length, and transmission speed
  45. modem
    a device that connects a user to the internet
  46. digital subscriber line (DSL)
    common carrier service, is a high speed service that uses ordinary phone lines
  47. Communication media
    channels connect sender and receiver devices. They can be conducted or radiated
  48. Conducted media
    provide a physical path along which signals are transmitted, including twisted pair cable, coaxial cable and fiber optics.
  49. Radiated media
    use an antenna for transmitting data through air or water
  50. centralized processing
    all processing is done at one central computer
  51. decentralized processing
    each user has its own computer for performing processing tasks
  52. distributed processing
    maintains centralized control and decentralizes operation. Processing power is distributed among several locations
  53. Open system interconnection (OSI) model
    a seven-layer architecture for defining how data is transmitted from computer to computer in a network
  54. network interface card (NIC)
    a hardware component that enables comuters to communication over a network
  55. local area network (LAN)
    connects workstations and peripheral devices that are in close proximity
  56. wide are network (WAN)
    span several cities, states, or even countries, and it's usually owned by several different parties
  57. Metropolitan area network (MAN)
    designed to handle data communication for multiple organizations in a city and sometimes nearby cities too.
  58. Network topology
    represents a networks physical layout
  59. star topology
    consists of a central computer and a series of nodes
  60. ring topology
    no host computer is required, because each computer manager its own connectivity
  61. bus topology
    connects nodes along a network segment, but the ends of the cable arent connected are they are in a ring topology
  62. hierarchial topology
    combines computers with different processing strengths in defferent organization levels
  63. controller
    hardware and software devide that controls data transfer from a computer to a peripheral device and vice versa
  64. multiplexer
    a hardware device that allows several nodes to share one communication channel
  65. mesh topology
    every node is connected to every other node
  66. transmission control protocol TCP
    an industry standard suite of communication protocols that enables interoperability
  67. packet
    a collection of binary digits, including message data and control characters for formatting and transmitting, sent from computer to computer over a network
  68. Routing
    the process of decididng which path to take on a network. This is determined by the type of network and the software used to transmit data
  69. Routing table
    generating automatically by software and used to determine the best possible route for the packet
  70. centralized routing
    one node is in charge of selecting the path for all packets.
  71. distributed routing
    relies on each node to calculate its own best possible route. Each node contains its own routing table with current information on the status of adjacent nodes so that the best possible route can be followed
  72. router
    a network connection device containing software that connects network systems and controls traffic flow between them
  73. static router
    requires the network routing manager to give it info about which addresses are on which network
  74. dynamic router
    can build tables that identify addresses on each network
  75. client-server model
    software runs on the local computer and communicates with the remote server to request info or services
  76. two-tier architecture
    a client communicates directly with the server
  77. n-tier architecture
    attempts to balance the workload between clients and server by removing application processing from both the client and server and placing it on a middle-tier server
  78. wireless network
    a network that uses wireless instead of wired technology
  79. mobile network
    operates on a radio frequency consisting of radio cells, each seved by a fixed transmitter known as a cell site or base station
  80. throughput
    the amount of data transferred or processed in a specified time, ususally one second
  81. Time division multiple access (TDMA)
    divides each channel into six slots to improve efficiency and quality of digital communication
  82. Code division multiple access
    transmits multiple encoded messages over a wide frequency and then decodes them at the receiving end
  83. convergence
    refers to integrating voice, video, and data so that multimedia info can be used for decision making
  84. internet
    a worldwide collection of millions of computers and networks of all sizes
  85. Advanced research projects agency network
    the begining of the internet
  86. Internet backbone
    foundation network linked with fiber-optic cables that can suppot very high bandwidth. It is made up of many interconnected government, academic, commercial, and other high-capacity data routers
  87. hypermedia
    include embedded references to audi, text, images, video, and other documents
  88. hypertext
    consist of links users can click to follow a particular thread
  89. domain name system (DNS)
    maintain lists of computers and websites addresses and their associates IP addresses
  90. Uniform resource locators (URLs)
    identify a web page. The address of a document or site on the internet
  91. Hypertect markup language
    the language used to create web pages. Defines a page's layout and appearance by using tags and attributes. A tag delineates a section of the page, such as the header and body
  92. navigational tools
    used to travel from site to site
  93. directories
    indexes of info based on keyworkds in documents, making it possible for search engines to find what you're looking for
  94. search engine
    information system that enable users to retrieve data from the web by searching for info using search items
  95. discussion groups
    usually for exchanging opinions and ideas on a specific topic, usually of a technical or scholarly nature.
  96. Newsgroup
    more general in nature and can cover any topic
  97. internet relay chat (IRC)
    enables users in chat rooms to exchange text messgaes with people in other locations in real time
  98. Instant messaging
    private chat room on the internet
  99. internet telephony
    using the internet rather than the telephone network to exchange spoken conversations
  100. voice over internet protocol
    used for telephony
  101. intranet
    network within an organization that uses internet protocols and technologies
  102. extranet
    a secure network that uses the internet to connect intranets of business partners so that communication between organizations is possible
  103. Web 2.0
    refers to the trend toward web applications that are more interactive than traditional web applications.
  104. Blog
    a journal or newsletter that's updated frequently and intended for the general public. Blogs reflect their authors' personalities and often include philosophical reflections and opinions on social or political issues
  105. wikis
    website that allows users to add, delete, and sometimes modify content
  106. Social Networking
    refers to a broad class of websites and services that allow users to connect with friends, family, and colleagues
  107. Really simple syndication feeds
    fast, easy way to distribute web content in XML format. Its a subscription service you sign up for and new content from websites you've selected is delivered via a feed reader to one convenient spot
  108. podcast
    an electronic audio file such as an MP3 file that's posted on the web for users to download to their mobile devices
  109. internet2
    a collaborative effort involving more than 200 US universities and corporations to develop advanced internet technologies and applications for higher education and academic research
  110. gigapop
    a local connection point-of-presence that connects a variety of high-performance networks and its main function is the exchange of 12 traffic with a specified bandwidth
Card Set
IS 130
IS 130 Test