1. List the names of the respiratory deseases? 
    • 1. colds
    • 2. allergies
    • 3. asthma
    • 4. tuberculosis
    • 5. bronchitis
    • 6. pneumonia 
    • 7. Emphysema
  2. define COPD?
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  3. what are the 2 main forms of COPD
     - Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus

    - Emphysema, which involves destruction of the lungs over timeMost people with COPD have a combination of both conditions.
  4. Causes, incidence, and risk factors of COPD? 
    Smoking is the leading cause of COPD.

    The more a person smokes, the more likely that person will develop COPD. However, some people smoke for years and never get COPD.

    In rare cases, nonsmokers who lack a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin can develop emphysema.
  5. Other risk factors for COPD are:
    Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace

    Exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution

    Frequent use of cooking fire without proper ventilation
  6. What are the symptoms of COPD?
    • Cough, with or without mucus
    • Fatigue
    • Many respiratory infections
    • Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity
    • Trouble catching one's breath
    • Wheezing
    • Because the symptoms of COPD develop slowly, some people may not know that they are sick.
  7. what are the sighns and tests of COPD?
    The best test for COPD is a lung function test called spirometry. This involves blowing out as hard as possible into a small machine that tests lung capacity. The results can be checked right away, and the test does not involve exercising, drawing blood, or exposure to radiation.

    Using a stethoscope to listen to the lungs can also be helpful. However, sometimes the lungs sound normal even when COPD is present.

    Pictures of the lungs (such as x-rays and CT scans) can be helpful, but sometimes look normal even when a person has COPD (especially chest x-ray).

    Sometimes patients need to have a blood test (called arterial blood gas) to measure the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
  8. what are some of the treatments: 
    There is no cure for COPD. However, there are many things you can do to relieve symptoms and keep the disease from getting worse.

    Persons with COPD MUST stop smoking. This is the best way to slow down the lung damage.

    • Medications used to treat COPD include: Inhalers (bronchodilators) to open the airways, such as ipratropium (Atrovent), tiotropium (Spiriva), salmeterol (Serevent), formoterol (Foradil), or albuterolInhaled steroids to reduce lung inflammation
    • Anti-inflammatory medications such as montelukast (Singulair) and roflimulast are sometimes used In severe cases or during flare-ups, you may need to receive: Steroids by mouth or through a vein (intravenously) Bronchodilators through a nebulizer
    • Oxygen therapyAssistance during breathing from a machine (through a mask, BiPAP, or endotracheal tube)
  9. what are the COPD Complications?
    • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)
    • Need for breathing machine and oxygen therapy
    • Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic lung disease)
    • Pneumonia
    • Pneumothorax
    • Severe weight loss and malnutrition
    • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis)
  10. what's a nursing diagnoses for a client with problems of oxygenation?
    Ineffective Airway Clearance

    Ineffective Breathing Pattern

    Impaired Gas Exchange

    Activity Intorelace 

    • these problems  also may be the etiology for the several other nuring diagnoses including: 
    • Anxiety, Fatigue, Fear, Powerlessness, Insomnia, and Social Isolation.
  11. what is the cause of tuberculosis(TB)?
    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal.  
  12. How does TB spreads? 
    TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected.
  13. What are the TB symptoms? 
    a bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longerpain in the chest

    coughing up blood or sputum

    weakness or fatigue

    weight loss

    no appetite, chills, fever, sweating at night
  14. what are the risk factors for TB Patients?
    • Has HIV infection;
    • Has been recently infected with TB bacteria (in the last 2 years);
    • Has other health problems, like diabetes, that make it hard for the body to fight bacteria;
    • Abuses alcohol or uses illegal drugs;
    • or
    • Was not treated correctly for TB infection in the past
  15. how is TB infection is tested? 
    There are two kinds of tests that are used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. These tests can be given by a health care provider or local health department. If you have a positive reaction to either of the tests, you will be given other tests to see if you have latent TB infection or TB disease.
  16. TB Treatment? 
    • Four regimens are approved for the treatment of latent TB infection. The medications used to treat latent TB infection include:
    • isoniazid (INH)
    • rifampin (RIF)
    • rifapentine (RPT)

    • The first-line anti-TB agents that form the core of treatment regimens include:
    • isoniazid (INH)
    • rifampin (RIF)
    • ethambutol (EMB)
    • pyrazinamide (PZA)
  17. what are the causes for Bronchitis?
    • Several types of viruses, most often:
    • Respiratory syncytial (sin-SIH-shull) virus (RSV)
    • Adenovirus
    • Influenza
    • Parainfluenza
    • Bacteria, in rare cases
    • Pollutants (airborne chemicals or irritants)
  18. Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?
    • Cough that produces mucus (may be without mucus the first few days)
    • Soreness in the chest
    • Fatigue
    • Mild headache
    • Mild body aches
    • Low-grade fever (less than 102°F)
    • Watery eyes
    • Sore throat
  19. What are some of the bronchitis treatments?
    When bronchitis is caused by a virus or irritation in the air (like cigarette smoke) , antibiotic treatment will not help it get better.  Since acute bronchitis almost always gets better on its own, it is better to wait and take antibiotics only when they are needed. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed can be harmful.

                          How to Feel Better

    Rest, over-the-counter medicines and other self-care methods may help you or your child feel better. For more information about symptomatic relief, visit the Symptom Relief section of this website or talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist.  Remember, always use over-the-counter products as directed.  Many over-the-counter products are not recommended for children younger than certain ages.
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