PSYC 320 Lesson 9

  1. three broad attributes that make up intelligence
    • verbal ability
    • practical problem solving
    • social competence
  2. intelligence characteristics of 6 month olds
    • recognition of people and objects
    • motor coordination
    • alertness
    • awareness of environment
    • verbalization
  3. intelligence characteristics of 2 year olds
    • verbal ability
    • learning ability
    • awareness of people and environment
    • motor coordination
    • curiosity
  4. intelligence characteristics of 10 year olds
    • verbal ability
    • learning ability
    • problem solving
    • reasoning
    • creativity
  5. intelligence characteristics of adults
    • reasoning
    • verbal ability
    • problem solving
    • learning ability
    • creativity
  6. Alfred Binet
    • Holistic view
    • first successful intelligence test was able to identify students who were unable to benefit from regular classroom instruction
    • tested memory and reasoning
    • associate items of increasing difficulty with age
    • known as the "Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale"
  7. factor analysis
    • identifies sets of test items that cluster together
    • test-takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others
  8. Charles Spearman
    • early factor analyst
    • found that all test items he examined correlated with one another
    • proposed general intelligence
    • noticed test items were not perfectly correlated
    • suggested that each item measures specific intelligence
  9. general intelligence
    • "g"
    • a commun underlying intelligence that influences performance on all types of test items and their correlation with one another
    • represents abstract reasoning capacity
  10. specific intelligence
    a mental ability that is unique to a test item
  11. Louis Thurstone
    • American psychologist
    • questioned importance of "g"
    • suggested that separate, unrelated factors exist called "primary mental abilities"
  12. Raymond B. Cattell
    in addition to "g", intelligence consists of two broad factors: crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence
  13. crystallized intelligence
    skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experince, good judgement, and mastery of social customs
  14. fluid intelligence
    • depends on basic information processing skills
    • influenced more by conditions in the brain and less by culture
  15. John Carroll
    • reanalyzed relationships among items
    • his findings yeilded a three-stratum theory of intelligence (elaborates the models proposed by Spearman, Thurstone and Cattell)
  16. Sternberg
    triarchic theory of successful intelligence
  17. triarchic theory of successful intelligence
    • 3 broad, interacting intelligences
    • analytical intelligence
    • creative intelligence
    • practical intelligence
  18. analytical intelligence
    information processing skills
  19. creative intelligence
    the capacity to solve novel problems
  20. practical intelligence
    applicatoin of intellectual skills in everyday situations
  21. Howard Gardner
    theory of multiple intelligences
  22. theory of multiple intelligences
    • intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities
    • eight independent intelligences
  23. eight independent intelligences
    • linguistic
    • logico-mathematical
    • musical
    • spatial
    • bodily-kinesthetic
    • naturalistic
    • interpersonal
    • intrapersonal
  24. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
    • Fifth Edition
    • modern form of Alfred Binet's first successful intelligence test
    • for ages 2 to adulthood
    • measure general intelligance and five intellectual factors (fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, knowledge, visual-spatial processing, working memory)
  25. Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children
    • for ages 6 to 16
    • measure of general intelligence and variety of factor scores
    • before Stanford-Binet
    • four broad intelligence factors (verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed)
  26. testing infants
    • difficult because babies cannot answer questions or follow directions
    • present them with stimuli, coax them to respond, observe their behavior
    • emphasize perceptual and motor responses
    • The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
  27. infant tests and later development
    • poor predictor of mental ability in childhood
    • scores often do not reflect tru abilities
  28. developmental quotient (DQ)
    • label of infant scores
    • infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence assessed in older children
  29. correlational stability of IQ scores
    • the older the child at time of first testing, the better the prediction of later IQ
    • the closer in time two testings are, the stronger the relationship between the scores
  30. environmental cumulative deficit hypothesis
    the negative effects of underprivileged rearing conditions increase the longer children remain in them
  31. IQ as a predictor of academic achievement
    • students with higher IQ also get better grades and stay in school longer
    • by second grade, children with the highest IQ scores are more likely as adults to enter prestigious professions, such as engineering, law, medicine and science
  32. practical intelligence
    • mental abilities apparent in the real world but not in testing situations
    • predicts on the job performance as well as, and sometimes better than IQ
  33. IQ and psychological adjustment
    • higher IQ children and adolescents tend to be better liked by their peers
    • juvenile delinquents score about 8 points lower on IQ than nondelinquents
  34. ethnic and socioeconomic variations in IQ
    • lower SES levels: African American and Hispanic
    • higher SES levels: caucasion and Asian American
    • heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic and SES differences in IQ
    • heredity plays a sizable role in the black-white IQ gap
  35. differences in general intelligence
    • american black children score on average 12 to 13 IQ points below American white children
    • hispanic american children fall midway between black and white children
    • asian american score slightly higher than white children
  36. differences in specific mental abilities
    • Arthur Jensen believes ethnic and SES differences are limited to certain kinds of mental abilities
    • two types of intelligence: associative and conceptual
  37. associative intelligence
    emphasizes rote memory and is measured by such items as digit span and recall of basic arithmetic facts
  38. conceptual intelligence
    emphasizes abstract reasoning and problem solving and is measured by items strongly correlated with "g", such as vocabulary, verbal comprehension, block design, and spatial visualization
  39. heritability of intelligence
    • the greater the genetic similarity between family members, the more they resemble one another in IQ
    • strong correlation to less correlation:
    • identical twins reared together
    • idential twins reared apart
    • fraternal twins reared together
    • nontwin siblings reared together
    • parent, biological child living together
    • fraternal twins reared apart
    • parent, biological child living apart
    • unrelated siblings living together
    • nontwin siblings reared apart
    • parent and adopted child
  40. most frequent characteristic mentioned as characterizing intelligence in children 10 years and older
    problem solving
  41. what does intelligence consist of? according to Sternberg
    • an interaction among information processing skills
    • prior experience with tasks
    • contextual (cultural) factors
  42. what does intelligence consist of? according to Thurstone
    • seven distinct primary mental abilities
    • verbal meaning
    • perceptual speed
    • reasoning
    • number
    • rote memory
    • word fluency
    • spatial visualization
  43. what does the new Stanford-Binet intelligence test address?
    • both general intelligence and five intellectual factors
    • fluid reasoning
    • quantitative reasoning
    • knowledge
    • visual/spatial processing
    • working memory
  44. the factor structure of the Wechsler Scales suggest that the test is least appropriate for what age group?
    6 month olds
  45. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development intelligence test address what?
    • a mental scale which includes items such as turning to a sound, looking for a fallen object, building a tower of cubes, naming pictures
    • a motor scale which assesses fine and gross motor skills
  46. Infant intelligence tests are most useful for
    screening to identify potential problem situations that might require special attention
  47. What conclusions can be drawn from the Scarr-Weinberg study on transracial adoption?
    the mean scores of black children adopted into white homes exceeded the national average IQ score 
  48. why are special intelligence tests required for infants?
    • they cannot answer questions or follow directions
    • they often fail to cooperate with the testing process
    • they are likely to become fatigue, distracted or bored
  49. What can be said about the stability of IQ scores over time?
    the older the child at the time of first testing, the better the prediction of later IQ
  50. According to the environmental cumulative deficit hypothesis the environmental conditions typically experienced by underprivileged children have a
    negative effect on intelligence, thus causing it to decline with age
  51. what is the relationship between IQ and occupational success?
    • IQ tends to predict occupational success about as well as it does educational success
    • the relationship is far from perfect
  52. To what factor did Jensen attribute most of the differences between white and black intelligence?
    the genetic differences in ability
  53. The text states that genetics plays a large role in IQ. one finding that supports this is
    the correlation for identical twins reared apart is much higher than for fraternal twins reared together
  54. Scarr and Weinberg researched the IQs of black children that are raised in white homes. They concluded that
    heredity cannot account for black children's typically depressed intelligence test scores
  55. One way of possibly reducing test bias is to
    focus on the processes involved in learning and development
  56. HOME stands for
    home observation for measurement of the environment
  57. What conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of early-intervention models?
    • the immediate effects are dramatic
    • there are some long-term positive effects
    • most children experience a washout effect
  58. traditional intelligence tests primarily test
    convergent thinking
Card Set
PSYC 320 Lesson 9
PSYC 320 Lesson 9