psy 255- Chapter 4

  1. Which theory tells us that communications provide information in ways beyond the explicit or obvious content of a message?

    B. Signal Theory
  2. All of the following are characteristics of the message that influence comprehension EXCEPT _____.

    a.physical characteristics
    d.message source
    e. figure-ground
  3. All of the following are message receiver characteristics affecting comprehension EXCEPT _____.

    e.brain dominance
    C. information intensity
  4. _____ represents the extent to which a message is internally consistent and fits surrounding information.

    B. Message congruity
  5. Which of the following is the object that is intended to capture a person’s attention in the message?

    D. figure
  6. An advertisement for Corona beer shows a couple lounging in beach chairs on a beautiful beach.  The water is crystal clear, the sky is brilliantly blue, and the sand is white.  With respect to message characteristics that influence comprehension, the water, sand, and sky represent the _____ in the message.

    D. ground
  7. A source’s effectiveness in gaining comprehension can be impacted by which factor?

    e.all of these choices
    e. all of the above
  8. Which message source characteristic refers to the amount of knowledge that a source is perceived to have about a subject?

    C. Expertise
  9. Which two message source characteristics do consumers associate with credibility?

    C. expertise and trustworthiness
  10. Thoughts that contradict a message are called _____.

    B. counterarguments
  11. All of the following statements regarding message receiver characteristics are true EXCEPT _____.

    a.Intelligent, well-educated consumers are more likely to accurately comprehend a message than are less-intelligent or less-educated consumers.
    b.Highly involved consumers tend to pay more attention to messages and exert more effort in comprehending messages.
    c.Consumers tend to like the familiar, but high levels of familiarity may actually reduce comprehension. 
    d.Left-brain dominant consumers tend to be visual processors and favor images for communication. e.Expectations can impact comprehension.
    d. Left-brain dominant consumers tend to be visual processors and favor images for communication
  12. Energizer batteries used to feature the Energizer Bunny in television commercials, often in unexpected ways to catch viewers off-guard.  Commercials seemed to be boring commercials about a fake brand of a mundane product like hemorrhoid ointment, when all of a sudden the Energizer Bunny would come on the screen banging a drum.  After a while, though, consumers had been exposed to the commercial so many times that they began to expect the bunny to march into the picture beating his drum so they tended to tune the commercial out.  Consumers’ response to this over-exposure represents the process of _____.

    C. habituation
  13. Most television commercials for car dealerships include a person walking by the cars in the lot almost yelling about price deals.  Consumers have come to expect this in car dealership commercials, which is referred to as a(n) _____ level.

    A. adaptation
  14. Environmental (information) intensity refers to _____.

    a.the degree to which factors in the environment influence comprehension
    b.the environmental limitations within a given environment
    c.the different meanings that can be   associated with elements in a consumer’s environment
    d.the amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment
    e.the way in which information is framed
    d. the amount of information available for a consumer to process within a given environment
  15. Which theory hypothesizes that the way in which information is framed differentially affects risk assessments and any associated consumer decisions?

    E. Prospect theory
  16. When someone approaches other people and says, “I have some bad news,”  they will likely expect to hear something that will upset them.  By saying “I have some bad news,” the other person has _____ the recipients to expect something bad.

    D. primed
  17. Which of the following is NOT considered a memory storage area in the multiple store theory of memory?

    A. intermediate memory
  18. Which of the following is TRUE regarding sensory memory?

    A. Sensory memory is very perishable and lasts only a very short time.
  19. Which storage mechanism represents the storage of visual information?

    a.iconic storage
    b.echoic storage
    c.visual storage
    d.front-brain storage
    e.left-brain storage
    a. iconic storage
  20. In which memory storage area is information stored and encoded for placement in long-term memory and, eventually, retrieved for future use?

    A. workbench memory
  21. The process by which information is transferred from workbench memory to long-term memory for permanent storage is called _____.

    D. encoding
  22. The process by which information is transferred back into workbench memory for additional processing when needed is known as _____.

    e. retrieval
  23. Stimuli that enter short-term memory may stay there approximately _____ seconds or so without some intervention.

    c. 30
  24. Generally, the capacity limit for workbench memory is between _____ units of information.

    A. three and seven
  25. All of the following are mental processes that help consumers remember things EXCEPT _____.

    b.dual coding
    c.back translation
    e.meaningful encoding
    c. back translation
  26. Research has shown that it is easier for people to remember concrete words, such as dog or car, better than they can remember abstract concepts, such as justice or peace.  It is believed to be due to the fact that people can more easily picture concrete concepts and thus put that information in their long-term memory via two different sensory “traces.”  That is, they put the word in long term memory as well as an image of that word.  This process in which two different sensory traces are available to remember something is called _____.

    c.dual coding
    d.meaningful encoding
    c. dual coding
  27. Which of the following involves the association of active information in short-term memory with other information that is recalled from long-term memory?

    B. meaningful encoding
  28. Through which process do consumers reconstruct memory traces into a formed recollection of the information they are trying to remember?

    A. response generation
  29. Which of the following is considered a repository for all information that a person has encountered?

    B. long-term memory
  30. A _____ is the mental path by which some thought becomes active.

    B. memory trace
  31. _____ is the way cognitive activation spreads from one concept to another in long-term memory.

    E. Spreading activation
  32. A network of mental pathways linking knowledge within memory is called a(n) _____.

    B. associative network
  33. Which of the following refers to cognitive components that represent facts in an associative network?

    a.declarative knowledge
    b.subjective knowledge
    c.objective knowledge
    d.nodal knowledge
    e.semantic knowledge
    a. declarative knowledge
  34. _____ represent concepts in an associative network.

    B. Nodes
  35. Which of the following is a type of associative network that works as a cognitive representation of a phenomenon that provides meaning to that entity?

    B. schema
  36. Coca-cola is a(n) _____ of the soft drink product category because it is the concept within a soft drink schema that is the single best representation of that category.

    e. exemplar
  37. Most consumers in the United States have a schema representing a wedding that has the bride coming down the aisle with her father, who gives her to the waiting groom.  After the ceremony, the groom then kisses the bride.  A schema representing an event such as a wedding is called a(n) _____.

    D. prototype
  38. Kelly remembers very clearly her sixth birthday when she had a party with pony rides.  This memory for past events is called _____. schema
    b.episodic memory
    c.situation memory
    d.nostalgic memory memory
    b. episodic memory
  39. Kayli was going to have a baby and was upset when the nurse attending to her had purple hair, tattoos, and a pierced nose.  She didn’t seem to fit the type of person Kayli expected in this environment, which means the nurse did not match Kayli’s _____ for a nurse.

    a.episodic memory schema
    d.declarative knowledge
    b. social schema
  40. Hillary is imagining herself driving the car she sees in a television commercial.  In which type of elaboration is Hillary engaged?

    a.personal elaboration
    b.kinetic elaboration
    c.exemplar elaboration
    d.primary elaboration
    e.secondary elaboration
    a personal elaboration
Card Set
psy 255- Chapter 4
Chpater 4