localized brain injury
confined to specific areas of the brain and result from penetrating injuries, vascular lesions (strokes, hemorrhages) or tumors
What amount of childhood strokes occur in the first two years of life?
- more than 1/3
- usual cause is cardiac disease, vascular occlusion (blockage), sickle cell diseas, vascular malformation, and vascular hemorrhage
spread out over many brain regions, result from traumatic head injury, poisoning, infections, certain tumors
In the schools, what does a teen qualify for?
TBI Case History
- Effects of TBI are widespread
- Can be subtle
- IQ tests are not sensitive enough for certain deficits so achievement does not reflect IQ
- The deficits do the not mean that the indiv will fail in school
- The probs cut across all academic areas
In terms of language, what do TBI indvs have touble with?
- Have limited self awareness of communication probs which leads to reluctance or unwillingness to work on them
- Poor planning of lang responses leads to disorganized, haphazard conversations
- They have diff starting conversations, keeping them going, and ending them
- They have probs inhibiting inappropriate remarks
- There are no standardized test for TBI becuase no two injuries are the same
What happens when TBI students return to school?
- 1. attend to a task for 10-15 min
- 2. tolerate 20-30 min of general classroom stimulation (noise, movement, visual etc)
- 3. function within a group of 2 or more students
- 4. engage in meaningful, reliable communication through speech, gesture or AAC
- 5. follow simple directions
- 6. show potential for learning
What is need for a student to successfully return to school?
- Involvment and cooperation of professional at hospital, school, fam and community
- -parents need to advocate for their child
- -children need to maintain peer relations-inform classmates how indiv is able or not able to participate
- -perpare indiv for the demands of school, visit before returning
- -teachers and other school staff need to be educated about the child's condition, needs, abilities
- -for teens, consider vocational rehab with work experiences
- -some may need home schooling
What are some sample strategies for TBI students?
- -work in small groups
- -supplement written instructions with written explanations
- -present info and new concepts slowlly, allow adequate time for auditroy and visual processing
- -repeat instructions more than once
- -assign a classroom buddy
- -be aware of emotional stability
- -be aware of fatigue