Neurogenic speech, language, cognitive disorders

  1. Neurogenic disorders
    • involve the nervous system
    • the type of language disorders depends on the site of the lesion, the extent of the lesion, and the underlying cause
  2. Stroke (CVA)
    • Cerebrovascular Accident
    • disruption of blood supply to the brain cuased by an occluded (blocked) artery or an artery that has hemorrhaged
  3. Risk factors of stroke
    • Male
    • Smoking
    • Overweight
    • Fatty diet
    • Lack of exercise
    • Heavy drinking
    • Diabetes melitus
    • HBP Hyertension
    • Age
    • Family History
    • Lack of medical checkups
    • Ethnicity
  4. What do strokes lead to?
    brain damage because of disruption of brain flow to brain
  5. edema
    abnormal acumulation of fluid in tissue
  6. anoxia
    lack of oxygen to the brain
  7. ischemic stroke
    result of a blocked artery  80%  over 3 mins which leads to death of brain tissue and swelling of brain tissue can lead to additional damage
  8. infarction
    death of brain tissue
  9. TIA
    What are the symptoms of TIA?
    • Transient ischemic attack
    • Temp closing or occlusion of an artery
    • Dizziness
    • Weakness
    • Numbness
    • Probs w/ speech
    • Unconsciousnedss
    • Lasts a few mins
    • May go for a few hours but symptoms disappear w/i 24 hours
    • May serve as a warning sign for a stroke
    • People overlook because disappears
  10. spontaneous recovery
    natural healing
  11. TBI
    Examples of protection?
    • Traumatic Brain Injury
    • can be prevented by protecting brain
    •     -wear seat belt
    •     -don't text and drive
    •     -wear a helmet
  12. OHI
    • Open Head Injury
    • Penetration
  13. CHI
    • Closed Head Injury
    • Primary cuase of damage is a blow to the head or violent acceleration.decceleraton of the skull
    • no penetraton of the dural lining
  14. LOC
    Loss of consciousness
  15. PCS
    • Post concussion syndrome
    • Residual effects of TBI
  16. Laceration
    tear of tissue
  17. Contusions
    skin/surface not torn but see ruptured blood vesels (bruise)
  18. coup injury
    site of the trauma
  19. contracoup injury
    • site opposite of the trauma
    • don't see in strokes and harder to determine where damage is
  20. Tumor
    • Neoplasm means new growth
    • May be begnin or malignant
  21. Metastasize
    travel or spread via bloodstream to other parts of the body
  22. Degenerative diseases
    • ALS, Parkinson's disease, AIDS, 
    • due to degenerative changes in subcortical structures. the diseaes are progressive and lead to impaired cognitive, communicative and motor functioning
  23. ADLs
    Activities of daily living
  24. Aphasia
    a language disorder resulting from left hem damage - most commonly from a stroke

    •     -auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reaing and
    •         writing deficits are common
    •     -phono, syntax, semantics, pragmatics may all be involved
  25. Characteristics of Broca's Area:
    Where is it?
    What behavior does it effect?
    • Frontal lobe
    • Expressive
    • Nonfluent, effortful speech
    • Oral expression is slow
    • Sentences are 3-4 words in length that are mostly nouns and verbs
    • Prosody of speech shows little chnage in stress or rate
  26. Characteristics of Wernicke's Area:
    Where is it? 
    What behavior effected?
    • Temporal lobe
    • Receptive
    • Deficits in auditory comprehension and fluent oral expression
    • Difficulty comprehending language spoken or written
    • Speech has normal intonation and stress
    • Speech production includes neologisms (making up new words) and verbal paraphasia (mixing up sounds in words)
    • Example of jargon aphasia
    • Experiences difficulties with reading and writing
  27. neologisms
    making up new words
  28. verbal paraphasia
    mixing up sounds in words
  29. functional outcomes
    patient cnetered in the environment they are in 
  30. right hemis syndrome
    right hemis functions involved
    • Attention
    • Orientation - person self and others, place, time, purpose
    • Visual perception
    • Emotional experiences and expressions and understanding the expressions of others (facial, sad mad etc)
    • Have difficulty using vocal intonation patterns
    • Difficulty staying on topic in a conversation
    • Temporal order and musical harmony
    • Aspects of communication (prosody, pragmatics)
    • Organization of info, abstract reasoning, judgment, prob solving
    • Visual spatial
  31. Brain Trauma
    What deficits are involved/
    • No two brain injuries are the same
    • Patients exhibit a wide range of communication and cog deficits
    •     -word finding
    •     -forming grammatical sentences
    •     -spelling
    •     -reading
    •     -writing
    •     -turn taking 
    •     -maintaining the topic in conversations
    •     -staying on topic
    •     -understanding facial expressions
    •     -problem solving, attention, reasoning, judgement
    •     -evaluate own actions
  32. Coma
    prolonged period of unconsciousness
  33. premorbid
    patient's condition prior to illness or injury
  34. Case history for stroke patient
    • infor about the patient prior to stroke
    • overall health
    • smoking, drinking etc
    • profession, job
    • average daily activities
    • level of edu
    • hobbies, sports etc
    • likes and dislikes of food
    • identify resources within family, colleagues etc
  35. Treatment of stroke
    • Goal is to improve lang. function in all areas of deficit
    • indiv
    • group
    • fam participation
  36. Warning signs of a stroke
    • -sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, leg especially on one side of body
    • -sudden confusion or diff speaking or understanding speech
    • -sudden diff seeing in one or both eyes
    • -sudden diff walking, dizn, loss of balance or coordination
    • -sudden severe headache with no known cause
  37. FAST
    • FACE: ask person to smile, one side will droop
    • ARMS: ask person to raise both arms, if one arm drifts downward, may be a sign
    • SPEECH: ask person to repeat simple sentence, if slurred or trouble understanding there may be problem
  38. STRS
    • SMILE: look at symetry
    • TALK: say simple sentence
    • STICK OUT YOUR TONGUE: if tongue crooked, call 911
  39. Dementia
    progressive deterioration of brain functions often by loss of brain cells which leads to brain atrophy. involves intellectual, cog, and personality deterioraton that is more severe in normal aging
  40. Dementia:
    MILD: does not remember recent events, asks same repeatedly, gest lost in conversations, diff with familiar tasks, places objects or puts i the wrong place, sudden mood changes, dioreinted to time/place/purpose

    MODERATE: incr loss of working memory, loss of ability to read/write, forgets to turn off appliances, forgets to take meds, diff w/ typical tasks (checkbook), behaves inappropriately in public, agitated and restless at night, agressive, angry

    SEVERE: little or no memeory, little or no emotion, possibly mute, grasps objects or people and will not let go, diff recognizing people (often their own), needs assistance for all ADL, restless and agitated, diff chewing and swallowing leads to weitht loss, dehydration, risk of aspirationn pneumonia
  41. senility
    medical term that refers to the normal loss of cog functioning with advanced age
Card Set
Neurogenic speech, language, cognitive disorders
Jamie Williams