Ethics In America II

  1.  right is always right, what’s wrong is always wrong.
  2. right or wrong depending on the consequences
  3.  right or wrong regardless of the consequences.
  4. applies to all people, although sometimes theremight be exceptions
  5. ethics apply without exception
  6. A historian who wrote about the Peloponnesian war
  7. believed that war was caused by human nature
  8. virtue is knowledge, and leads to happiness. People who who know virtue will act it.  do good
  9.  founded a famous school called The Academy. Most of his writings were about what Socrates taught.
    Plato (428-347 BC)
  10. They were The Symposium, Republic, and The Apology
    Plato’s 3 most famous writings
  11. believed that truth was the ultimate source of happiness
  12. studied under Plato.
    Aristotle (384-322 BC)
  13. When responding to a situation, the ------------ helps you to avoid over or under responding.
    The golden mean
  14. What God commands is ethically right
    Divine Command Theory
  15. says certain actions are right or wrong. This incompasses Natural Law Theory, Social Contract Theory, and Kantism.
    Moral Law
  16. says life is immeasurably good. Bad actions(killing an innocent person) can never be justified.
    Natural Law Theory
  17. An action with both good and bad principles
    Double Effect Principle
  18. A part of natural law theory that saysindividuals have a duty to follow nature
  19. He said to live a happy virtuouslife one should do what is in accordance with nature.
  20. He wrote Summa Theologica, said all humans are capable of identifying good & evil, conscience tells us what to do, and to act against one’s conscience is always a sin. He also said natural laws are self-evident. He also said some humans learn virtuous behavior slower than others, and human laws are needed to train/restrain/punish these people.He said humans have a natural inclination towards good.
    St. Thomas Aquinas
  21. This theory proposes that ethics result fromgroups of individuals who out of self-interest, enter into a contract with eachother. They give up individual freedoms, but gain the benefits of groupstrength and safety.
    Social Contract Theory
  22.  believed that humans are obligated to support each other.  He said that each person has rights to their own property.
    John Locke
  23. Each individual has the right to 3 things, life, liberty, and property
    What John Locke was famous for saying
  24. A 17th century Swiss philosopher whobelieved that great extremes of wealth & poverty destroy freedom.
    Jean Jacques Rousseau
  25. ------------- said the “-------------” meant the will of all. In his book, The SocialContract, he said that when individuals give up their natural rights to thegeneral will, they gain their freedom.
    Rousseau & the “general will”
  26. influenced Jefferson, who believed that arevolution was justified when the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness challenged.
    John Locke
  27. A 20th century American who believedthat it’s unjust when society abandons its least fortunate citizens to care for“the greatest number.”
    John Rawls
  28. saw life as a set of ----------------- (commands). Hypothetical imperatives are driven bydesire Categorical imperatives are driven by reason
    Immanuel Kant & Imperatives
  29. believed that while fixed ethical rules exist,people are free to follow or ignore them.
  30. (1) In other words, if I can do something to you, then you should be able to do it to me. This is also known as Universality.(2) “Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never merely as a means.”
    Kant’s most famous two theories were
  31. Famous American Civil Rights leader who quoted many famous ethicists in his speaches and rightings. Some of his famous quotes were:St. Thomas Aquinas: “an unjust law is no law at all.”------: “a just law agrees with moral law”--------: “Therefore, segregation is unjust because it damages the personality and distorts the soul, therefore it is unjust (no law at all).
    Martin Luther King, Jr.
  32. Hedonism, Utilitarianism, and the Ethics ofAltruism and Egoism.
    consequential ethics
  33. states that good is pleasure and bad is pain.
  34. believed that good is pleasure, freedom fromphysical pain, and freedom from a troubled mind. He believed that gods have noinfluence on the life of humans.
  35. says an action is good if the good consequences outweigh the bad consequences for all.
  36. who was a social reformer that introducedseveral new ideas to Utilitarianism.
    Jeremy Bentham
  37. (1) Principle of Utility: The only thing good is pleasure from an action.
    Jeremy Bentham’s new ideas
  38. was a close friend of Jeremy Bentham. -----------defended Bentham’s theories & expanded on them slightly.
    John Stuart Mill
  39. (1) said only the quantity of happiness was relevant, Mill said the quality should also be considered.(2) Mill developed The Greatest Happiness Principle – stating that the degree of goodness was determined by the degree or amount of happiness produced, not just in the acting individual but also all people affected.(3) He believed that no person’s happiness or unhappiness is more important than another person’s.(4) Mill said the government has a limited right to interfere with the personal actions of the individual.
  40. States that for an act to be good, it must produce more happiness and less unhappiness for myself.
    Ethics of egoism
  41. Psychological egoism: People are primarily motivated by biological self-interest.(2) Ethical egoism: People should act for their self-interest
  42. Author of the famous book Wealth of Nations,advancing the egoistic belief that the common good is best advanced by thepursuit of self
    Adam Smith
  43. Some feminists claim all traditional ethictheories have a built-in male bias, because it interprets ethical issues onrules, rights, principles, and contracts. Men examine these issues from arational, impartial perspective. Feminists insist that women have a different“way of knowing” based heavily on care, concern, and cooperation.
    Feminist ethics
  44. was an American educator & philosopher, whoobserved that when young girls and boys play games, boys tend to focus on therules of the game, while girls are less focused on the rules and will oftenquit playing to avoid conflict.
    Carol Gilligan
  45. An individual causes someone’s death. Lethalinjection is one example.
    Active euthanasia
  46. An individual allows someone to di by not intervening with natural processes.
    Passive euthanasia
  47. Discuss the famous Supreme court ruling on Abortion
    In the 1973 ruling Roe vs. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that a woman has a non-absolute right to choose abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. This ruling is interpreted as follows:First Trimester (months 1-3) – It is the woman’s choice, the state has no authoritySecond Trimester (months 4-6) – It is the woman’s choice, the state may intervene to protect the woman’s lifeThird Trimester (months 7-9) – The state may protect “potential human life” except at risk to the mother
  48. Somebody who thinks there should be equality inall people, and especially in social and economic situations.
Card Set
Ethics In America II
Ethics In America, Dantes, DSST