Identify pain as the fifth vital sign.
Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience which we primarily associate with tissue damage or describe in terms of such damage, or both. Pain is whatever the person says it is.
Classify pain into acute and chronic pain.
- Acute Pain- Usually associated with a recent injury
- Chronic Pain- Usually associated with a specific cause or injury and described as a constant pain that persists for more than 6 months
Name the different physiologic responses to pain.
- Emotional and psychological
- Physical appearance
- Increased vital signs
- Decreased gastrointestinal and urinary function
- Increased release of hormones and neurotransmitters
- Metabolic disturbances
- Muscular dysfunction
Interview a client experiencing pain, collecting subjective and objective data.
- Subj- Review past and family histories in terms of pain, Review health habits to determine how the pain interferes with the clients life, Watch for the clients facial expressions and grimaces during the interview, DO NOT put words in the clients mouth, Ask the client about past experiences with pain, Believe the clients expression of pain
- Obj: tools
- Visual Analog Scales (VAS)- none- bad
- Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (NPI)- 1-10
- Simple Descriptive Pain Intensity Scale- describes
- Graphic Rating Scale
- Verbal Rating Scale
- Faces Pain Scales
Perform a physical assessment on a client who is experiencing pain.
- Observe posture, facial expression
- Measure vital signs
- Perform a physical assessment
- Validate and document data
- Analyze data
- Nursing diagnosis