PBJ 102 Midterm

  1. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • people must fulfill their fundamental basic needs before they can pursue higher-level growth needs
    • Self actualization: highest level need; realizing one's max potential
    • Esteem: competence, personal growth
    • Belongingness: intimacy, love, satisfying relationships
    • Security: safe, secure environment
    • Physiological Needs: fundamental, basic needs
  2. Fields of Human Services
    • Family and children's: family counseling, day care, adoption, investigate and prevent child abuse and neglect
    • Mental Health: clinics, treatment for ddrug and alcohol addiction
    • Health and Rehab: hospital soc. wrk, hospice care, maternal health
    • Occupational Soc. Wrk: treatment for work-related stresses, retirement plan
    • The Criminal Justice Sys: adult cjs=probation and parole, juvenile js=rehabilitative/correct behaviors
    • Gerentological Services: focus on elderly pop., in-home support, adult day care, long term care, nursing home service
    • School Social Work: school adjustment counseling, family counseling, behavior management
    • Housing: subsidized rent, homeless shelters
    • Income Maintenance: Medicare, Medicaid, public assistance programs, food stamps
    • Community Development: social planning, community organizing, neighborhood revitalization
  3. Settlement House Movement
    • In the late 19th century, Jane Addams established Hull House in Chicago
    • advocacy and services provided to respond to the social disorganization that resulted from:
    • widespread industrialization
    • urbanization ->overcrowding, poor sanitation
    • large influx of immigrants
    • substandard living conditions
  4. Psychoanalytical Movement
    • occurred in the 1920's
    • emphasized treating individuals
    • Mary Cromwell Jarrett: specialty in psychiatric soc. wrk
    • mental hygiene movement and mental health services provided by American Red Cross in WWI to address the psychological after math of the war by working with veterans
  5. Public Welfare Movement
    • occurred in the 1920's
    • emphasized the sociocultural, political, and economic dimensions of social functioning arising from the Great Depression
    • Harry Hopkins: wrkd in settlement house movement, significant role in development of social policy, engineered the development of the Soc. Sec. Act of 1935
    • Frances Perkins: first woman cabinet member (FDR's Sec. of Labor), served a key role in soc. sec. policy
  6. Name several disciplines that social work builds on.
    • Psychology
    • Sociology
    • Economics
    • Biology
    • Cultural Anthropology
  7. The Ecosystems Perspective
    used by many soc. wrkrs to understand interrelationships btwn ppl and their physical and social environments
  8. What are social systems?
    • Systems: sets of elements that are orderly and interrelated to make a function whole
    • Human Systems: always interacting with other systems and exchanging resources
    •      Family
    •      Work
    •      Education
    •      Relationships
    •      Human Services/Social Work
  9. Transactions
    the exchanges between the systems and resources
  10. What are the three types of social functioning?
    • Effective Social Functioning: adapt to stress, can cope/make adjustments
    • At-Risk Social Functioning: vulnerable to problems, ability of bringing joy to life is limited, in environment that exposes them to risk
    • Difficulty in Social Functioning: ability to cope is diminished, can be depressed, stressed, lonely
  11. What are the three social work methods?
    • Microlevel: casework-primary method, work with individuals, crisis intervention, problem solving
    • Midlevel or Mezzolevel: group work, use group interactions to promote growth and change, develop social skills
    • Macrolevel: community organization, advocate social reform, involve community leaders
  12. Public Agency
    • created by governments through legislation
    • funded through taxes
    • ex) income maintenance, child protection, family welfare, disabilities, rehabilitation, veterans, elderly
    • ex) Child Protective Services
  13. Private Agency
    • usually established by community, national, or international special-interest groups
    • funding comes from: private donations, contributions from affiliates, endowments, fees for services
    • ex) United Way
  14. What are the two types of organizations in social services?
    • Agencies: orgs. that actually deliver the social services, structured procedures and guidlines
    • Associations: groups of people that come together to advancee the common purpose of their members, provide services to members
  15. Secretarian Affiliation
    • Designates a religious affiliation
    • ex) Catholic Charities, Jewish Federation, St. Joseph's Hospital in Syracuse
  16. Nonsectretarian
    • Secular or non-religious affiliation
    • because of the constitutional seperation of church and state, all public organizations in US are nonsecretarian
  17. Nonprofit Organizations
    • Cannot show a profit at the end of the fiscal year
    • has a service motive, rather than a profit motive
    • can generate income, accumulate investments
    • use incomes for programs and services
    • mainly those in public sector
  18. For-Profit Organizations
    • portion of income is returned to investors or shareholders
    • mainly those in private sector, private practice
    • Hospitals, nursing homes
  19. Values
    • Ideas about what we think is:
    • good
    • valuable
    • perferable
    • Values shape pir beliefs and attitudes and vice versa
  20. Ethics
    • ideas about what we think is:
    • right
    • correct
  21. What are the ethical principles for social work?
    • Acceptance
    • Individualization
    • Purposeful Expression of Feelings
    • Nonjudgmental Attitudes
    • Objectivity
    • Controlled Emotional Involvement
    • Self Determination
    • Access to Resources
    • Confidentiality
    • Accountability
  22. Human Rights
    basic fundamental rights that protect human life, ensuress freedom and liberty, and pursuit of happiness
  23. Civil Rights
    protect us from discrimination and oppression by governments and other citizens
  24. Citizens' Rights to Social Welfare
    right to work, right to education, right to standard living that supports basic family needs
  25. Social Injustice "isms"
    • Racism: idea that one racial group is superior to another (3 levels- individual, organizational, and structural)
    • Sexism: the idea that one sex is superior
    • Heterosexism: prejudicial attitudes towards those whose sexual orientation is different than heterosexuals
    • Ageism: prejudicial attitudes towards certain age groups
    • Handicapism: prejudice and discrimination against those with mental or physical handicaps
    • Elitism: the idea that people in lower socioeconomic classes are inferior
  26. Why does social injustice prevail?
    • William Graham Sumner popularized Social Darwinism in the U.S.
    • Social welfare interventions upsets the balance of nature by favpring the survival of the unfit-reform individual's morality rather than by legislating change
    • Public charity was criticized, but private charity was supporting for its altruistic nature
    • Government intervention upset the balance of nature, altered the struggle for existence, and tipped balance in favor of the unit
  27. Social Darwinism
    Originated with Herbert Spencer, English philosopher, who combined Darwin's theory of evolution and the theory of inherited characteristics
  28. Worthy Poor
    could benefit from charity, reform themselves and improve their situation
  29. Unworthy Paupers
    unfit who depended on others, preferred to beg rather than work
  30. Oppression Through Discrimination
    • groups with minority status may be target of acts of social injustice
    • political, economic, social, and psychological domination
    • stereotyping
    • ethnocentrism- belief in superiority leads to contempt of other groups
  31. Interpersonal Dehumanization
    • perceived as an inanimate object
    • used to justify maltreatment and legitimize antisocial acts
    • occurred during Holocaust
  32. Personal Victimization
    • people are labeled and devalued by others, feel powerless
    • self-fulfilling prophecy-live up to their labels
  33. Overcoming Social Injustice
    • Resource-rich environments enhance social functioning and contribute to empowerment
    • Expanding opportunities means activating strategies that enhance participation in social and political processes
  34. Race
    a classification that distinguishes people by biological or physiological differences (ex: African Americans, Indians)
  35. Ethnicity
    refers to distinct groups who share common traits, customs, and sometimes religious beliefs (cultural differences; ex: immigrants, refugees)
  36. Asians Culture
    • Filial Peity: respect and deference to adults, parental dominance
    • Parental Expectations for Children to Comply: use of shame; threats of losing face, and family support
    • Self Control: modest behavior, humble
    • Middle Position Virtue: communal belonging, group influence
    • Fatalism: accept your situation. "Fate"
  37. Cultural Competence or Ethnic Competence
    • Providing culturally relevant service that are sensitive to needs of clients
    • Culturally competent practitioners have foundation of knowledge and skills that demonstrate acceptance of social diversity
    • Listen to client’s issues and history to form effective partnerships
  38. Sexual Diversity
    • one of the most diverse group sin the U.S. is defined by their sexual minority status
    • Issues: homophobia- irrational fear, hatred, violence, behavioral reactions; work related issues, rejection and disappointment from family and friends (2 most important support systems); harassment; depression; suicide
  39. Religious Diversity
    • Religion: an organized set of beliefs, practices, and rituals affiliated with an institution such as Church, Synagogue, or Mosque
    • Spirituality: a sense of meaning and purpose, such as understanding the meaning of life and death, how we should act
    • Client problems often times center on value issues
    • The religious community provides social support networks and professional services
  40. Purpose of Social Work
    "to promote or restore a mutually beneficial interaction between individuals and society in order to improve the quality of life for everyone." (NASW)
  41. Empowerment
    • the process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political pwer so that individuals can take action to improve their situations
    • feeling worthy and confident
    • perception of power and control
  42. The Empowerment Process
    • 1) Forming Partnerships: wants and accepts services, need interpersonal skills
    • 2) Articulating Situations: establish a dialogue
    • 3) Defining Directions: establish priorities, goals, objectives
    • 4) Identifying Strengths: client can formulate solutions, enhance involvement
    • 5) Assessing Resource Capabilities: gather info, identify resources to help them meet needs
    • 6) Framing Solutions: develop goals and objectives, specify plan of action
    • 7) Activating Resources: initiating actions that will result in achieving the desired outcome
    • 8) Creating Alliances: empowerment groups, support networks
    • 9) Expanding Opportunities: edu, political involvement, a job, community involvement
    • 10) Recognizing Success: progress evaluation, outcome assessment
    • 11) Integrating Gains: process comes to a close, change continues
  43. Cultural Pluralism
    • an alternative to a majority-minority relationship that subordinates minority culture.
    • strives to maintain the cultural integrity of ethnic groups
  44. Assimilation
    occurs when a minority group integrates itself into the dominant group
  45. Acculturation
    minorities incorporate themselves into the dominant cultue by adopting its attitudes, values, and norms.
  46. Marginality
    Of, relating to, located at, or constituting a margin, a border, or an edge
  47. Eco-Map
    • a tool that helps workers and clients visualize clients' environment resources and constraints. 
    • eco-maps picture significant relationships between client systems and their environmental systems
  48. Residual View
    based on the idea that governments should play only a limited role in the distribution of social welfare
  49. Institutional View
    A view that emphasizes the preventive role of social welfare in modern industrial societies. View that the welfare of the individual is the responsibility of the social collective.
  50. Mary Richmond
    One very important writing by Richmond includes a small handbook, Friendly Visiting Among the Poor. This is a handbook intended to point out various aspects which are important in doing charitable work in the homes of the poor. The different aspects include health, children, church, and saving and spending money.Another important work By Mary Ellen Richmond is a book entitled, What is Social Case Work? This book is an introduction to case work and the social work profession. This publication outlines the different types of social work, such as social work in the hospital, in the home, in the workplace, and even including the court aspect of social work (Richmond,1922).
  51. Genogram
    • Illustrates the structure and interrelationships within a family.
    • Genograms incorporate information from at least two generations, including names, ages, and dates of marriages, divorces, and deaths.
  52. Precious
    the alternative school: Each One Teach One
Card Set
PBJ 102 Midterm
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