Labor Studies midterm review

  1. culture
    Systems that attach individuals to work, harness their commitments, and direct their efforts
  2. Opportunities and constraints that shape what types of jobs can be pursued, by who, and the returns received are elements of?
  3. agency
    People's efforts to direct their own lives, shape the lives of others, and respond to or modify the structure and culture of work
  4. Class structures
    Socioeconomic divisions between different segments of the workforce
  5. Interactive service work
    Involves direct personal encounters between employees and customers. Teachers, therapists, servers
  6. Demography
    The composition of a society
  7. Strategic action
    A way for emps to work with structural and cultural arrangements by over producing for quotas and saving the extras to use for later quotas
  8. What does STEM stand for?
    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics. More educated workers, part of new economy
  9. Dual labor market
    A structure that divides opportunities into two different strata of jobs
  10. Primary labor market
    Higher pay, predictable career structures, opportunities for skill development and greater job security
  11. Secondary labor market
    Dead end positions offering low pay, unstable opportunities, low security and limited skill expansion
  12. Taylorism
    Takes the work of skilled craftsmen and breaks it up into repetitive unskilled jobs to achieve greater productivity, like assembly lines. Extracts maximum effort from emps and minimizes chances of relaxing on the job.
  13. Flexible work arrangements
    Available due to new technologies, more women in workforce, and new organizational designs
  14. Move work arrangements
    Changes time and place work is performed but does not reduce amount of work, enables schedule variability
  15. Reduce work arrangements
    Allows workers to scale back work hours, job share, phase into retirement. Temporarily limits the amount of work being performed
  16. Pause work arrangements
    Temporary career breaks, sabbaticals, and paid or unpaid time for education to improve job skills
  17. Global supply chains
    Production is divided up among companies spread across the world
  18. WARN Act
    Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act - protects workers, their families, and communities by requiring most employers with 100+ emps to provide 60 days notice in advance of plant closings and mass layoffs.
  19. At-will employment
    an employment relationship in which either party can break the relationship with no liability, provided there was no express contract or collective bargaining.  ER is free to discharge EE for any cause, and EE is equally free to quit, strike, or cease work
  20. Corporate paternalism
    the belief that it is the ER's responsibility to provide for its employees
  21. Free labor
    the belief that you should be free to choose the job you want
  22. Scientific management
    aka Taylorism; takes control from workers and gives it to management by creating simpler jobs to increase worker speed and accuracy
  23. Short essay:  Reasons for persistence of low wage jobs in new economy
    • 1.  decline of unionization
    • 2.  employers dictate terms of employment
    • 3.  legislation designed to protect workers (ie minimum wage) not as strongly enforced
    • 4.  No system of universal healthcare and child support in US, so ER's have to put resources into these programs rather than paying better wages
  24. Short essay:  Why has organized labor declined?
    • 1.  Declining proportion of workforce employed in manufacturing
    • 2.  Employers closing factories and moving them offshore or to union-free states
    • 3.  Failure of American unions to organize workers in the growth sectors of the new economy
    • 4.  US labor policy doesn't favor new union formation in the private sector
  25. Short essay:  Why are workers less secure today than in mid 20th century?
    • 1.  Growing acceptance that jobs should be insecure, especially among management
    • 2.  Modern businesses are continually restructuring to be more efficient with less people
    • 3.  At-will employment allows ER's to fire workers for any reason - widely seen in secondary labor market
    • 4.  Companies have less appreciation and goodwill for EE's past contributions
    • 5. More US jobs being moved offshore
  26. Long essay, part 1:  Starbucks workers
    • 1.  Workers schedules dictated by management and vary week to week; no formal seniority
    • 2.  Internal branding makes EE's "partners, gives EE's free coffee and stock options, offers medical benefits,  informs EE's of programs to improve communities
    • 3.  CEO Howard Schultz "identifies" with workers because he was once poor and made himself rich
    • 4.  Requires little formal education
    • 5.  Baristas with burned hands wear scars with pride
    • 6.  Workers have a set hourly wage - good and bad, because it stays same regardless of what shift they work
    • 7.  Workers suffer repetitive motion injuries from bending and reaching all day
    • 8.  Workers don't enjoy their work
    • 9.  Workers are told by management and corporate training how to dress and behave; no piercings, tattoos, etc
  27. Long essay, part 2:  Bike messengers
    • 1.  Messengers enjoy their work
    • 2.  Have more freedom and excitement
    • 3.  Can set their own schedules, usually within a 9-6 timeframe
    • 4.  "Brotherhood" - bike races, outreach to help fellow messengers from out of town
    • 5.  Requires little formal education
    • 6.  Messengers also wear scars with pride
    • 7.  Low wages, often commission-based, no medical benefits
    • 8.  Rely on dispatchers to give them enough assignments to make money
    • 9.  Messenger companies don't really care how messengers look or dress, or how they behave
    • 10.  Face danger from traffic accidents
  28. Long essay:  How does Walmart symbolize the new economy?
    • New economy = less job security
    • 1.  Walmart employees have little control over working conditions, schedules
    • 2.  No matter what job they perform, they are paid same wage (whether cashier or stockperson, etc)
    • 3.  Wage remains constant whether they work day or night shifts
    • 4.  Low wages, no medical benefits
    • 5.  Walmart CEO makes more money in one morning than average Walmart EE makes in one year - disproportionate share of income
    • 6.  Low wages paid to workers allow consumers to buy cheaper goods
    • 7.  Consumer winds up making up the difference with increased taxes and deductions for social welfare programs supporting low wage workers
    • 8.  EE's don't make enough to afford healthcare so they rely on public assistance which costs all, especially middle class
    • 9.  New economy has created more expenses for the middle class due to increased use of public assistance by lower class
  29. Gross domestic product
    a figure in dollars that represents the total value of all goods and services produced in a country
  30. per capita gross national income
    the sum of all incomes received, divided by the country's population
  31. Zweig class structure
    Upper class is only 2% of population, with most people belonging to working class - class is based on power rather than income
  32. Private insurance
    Popularized in US due to lack of government programs to help people who couldn't work; less accessible today due to rising premiums
  33. Mutual assistance
    Urban social clubs such as the Masons or the Odd Fellows provided member families with small death benefits or sometimes health insurance - collective resources pooled to provide support in times of hardship
Card Set
Labor Studies midterm review
Labor Studies Midterm