1. Dwell Time
    Period of time the rifle remains in a specific state during the firing sequence
  2. M4 Gas Port Pressure (14.5in barrel, 7.5 in gas tube)
  3. Extractor Bounce (lift)
    occurs during initial rearward movement of the bolt after bolt rotation stops
  4. weapons maintenance
    maintaining the reliable operation of the weapon through inspection, cleaning, and parts replacement
  5. ballistics
    study of the flight characteristics of projectiles
  6. trajectory
    path of the projectile while in flight
  7. external ballistics
    affects of projectile while in flight
  8. effects of altitude on a bullet
    • higher altitudes; air is thinner, bullet will travel farther
    • (each 5K ft of elevation will raise POI .5-1 MOA)
  9. Effects of Temperature
    • Cold Air= Lower impact
    • Hot Air= Higher impact

    *cold air is denser causing more drag
  10. Natural point of aim
    when your body, rifle, sights and target are all in alignment w/out muscular manipulation of the rifle
  11. cycle of operation

    1. Firing 2. Unlocking 3.Extracting 4. ejecting  5. cocking  6. feeding  7.chambering  8. locking
  12. simple malfunction
    hammer falls with no effect
  13. complex malfunction
    A break in the cycle of operation; one that requires unloading/clearing of the weapon and re-loading.
  14. catastrophic malfunction
    a malfunction requiring tools or parts to fix
  15. instinct
    • -the inherent disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior
    • -unlearned, fixed patterns of reaction or responses to certain kinds of stimuli
  16. learned patterns of response
    an action that has been learned and over time has become so rehearsed that it appears to be automatic
  17. economy of motion
    physical efficiency creating maximum work
  18. gait
    the length of step
  19. balance
    stability produced by even distribution of weight on each side of a vertical axis
  20. 5 physical factors affecting shooting platform
    • 1) Size
    • 2) Strength
    • 3) ability / disability
    • 4) visual acuity
    • 5) comfort
  21. posture
    the position or bearing of the body, whether characteristic or assumed, for a special purpose
  22. pace
    the rate of steps
  23. kinesiology
    the study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement
  24. 4 factors of shooting and moving
    • 1. pace
    • 2. posture
    • 3. gait
    • 4. balance
  25. Speed Reload
    • 1. bring the weapon into the work space
    • 2. movements are deliberate and to the point
    • 3. index the weapon at a cant into the work space, new mag, bolt release
  26. Tactical reload
    • -need time and oppurtunity
    • -draw out the last mag you would go to
    • -you should be behind cover, feed from the rear, stow back into the rear
  27. Sound Tactics should:
    • 1. Maximize certainty of success
    • 2. Minimize mental and physchological out put
    • 3. minimize response team
  28. kinesthesia
    the awareness of the position and movemenent of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs (proprioceptors) in the muscles, ligaments and joints
  29. Proprioceptor
    a sensory receptor that recieves stimuli from within the body, especially one that responds to position and movement
  30. Exteroceptive Senses
    How we percieve the exterior world (sight, touch, smell, touch, hearing and balance)
  31. Interoceptive Senses
    means by which we percieve the pain and movement of internal organs
  32. Types of stops
    • Destructive trauma
    • rapid incapacitation
    • instant incapacitation
    • psychological stop
  33. Instant incapacitation
    Achieved by a hit to the CNS, either in the lower brain region or the upper spinal cord
  34. Destructive Trauma
    takes place when the limbs are so badly damaged they are rendered useless
  35. Rapid incapicitation
    occurs when there is sufficient blood loss to render the suspect weak or unconscious
  36. Physchological Stop
    includes visual of a firearm. Happens when non-incapacitating wounds affect the suspect
  37. Down Range
    Down range is an administratively designated area where projectiles are intended to impact
  38. Gravity
    A constant force that is placed upon the projectile regardless of shape, size, weight or velocity
  39. Altitude and/or Air Density
    At higher altitudes, the air is thinner and thus the bullet will travel further distances, with a correspondingly flatter trajectory. Each 5K feet of elevation will raise the strike of the bullet ½ to 1 minute of angle.
  40. Temperature Effects
    Deviation from standard daytime temperature (59 degrees Fahrenheit) affects bullet trajectory.

    • ? Cold air is denser thus causing more drag on the bullet. This will cause the bullet to lose velocity resulting in the impact being lower than the intended point of impact. Cooler air also causes lower chamber pressure, which reduces the initial muzzle velocity.
    • ? Warm or hot temperatures cause the strike of the round to move up.
  41. How to Detect a Malfunction
    • The primary indication of a malfunction is the failure of the rifle to fire.
    • ? The 2nd indicator is a visual inspection which will identify an obvious stoppage.
    • ? The 3rd indicator is an odd change in the weight transfer of the weapon during recoil. This is usually caused by a failure of the bolt to go completely to the rear or forward fully into battery.
  42. Simple Malfunction
    • A failure to fire when the hammer falls with no effect
    • (Tap, Rack, Re-Assess)
  43. Complex Malfunction
    Is one that requires unloading/clearing the weapon system and reloading/resuming
  44. Catastrophic Malfunction
    Means that a remedy will require tools and/or replacement parts
  45. Traditional Double Feed
    This occurs when two live rounds are present in the feed way at the same time.
  46. Bolt Override Double Feed
    When the weapon discharges, the shock of the bolt carrier moving to the rear can dislodge a round from the feed lips of a weak or unserviceable magazine before the bolt comes forward. If the shooter is at an extreme angle, the live round can fall into the carrier key channel in the upper receiver
  47. Bolt Override Failure to Eject
    • -extractor loses control of empty case
    • -bolt comes forward, stripping fresh cartridge
    • -empty case gets knocked up between bolt step and gas key
  48. Charging Handle Impingement (Failure to eject)
    • -extractor loses control of empty case
    • -bolt moves forward stripping new round\
    • -empty case gets lodged between bolt and carrier key channel
  49. Stuck case / Stove Pipe
    caused by some type of obstacle in front of the ejection port
  50. Failure to Extract
    The extractor slips off the case rim, while the bolt feeds a live round into the rear of the stuck brass
  51. Image Upload 1
    Traditional Double Feed
  52. Image Upload 2
    bolt override double feed
  53. Image Upload 3
    bolt override failure to eject
  54. Image Upload 4
    charging handle impingement
  55. Image Upload 5
    Inverted kneeling
  56. Image Upload 6
    Junkyard Prone
  57. Image Upload 7
    Lo Pro (SBU) Prone
  58. Image Upload 8
    rocking chair
  59. Image Upload 9
    Roll over Prone
  60. Image Upload 10
    Stacked Feet
  61. Image Upload 11
    Stove Pipe
  62. Image Upload 12
    Stretched Knee
Card Set